Skip the header
No access
13 July 2022



The physiological functions, requirements, diagnosis and treatment of manganese deficiency and toxicity in livestock and poultry are discussed.

Get full access to this article

View all available purchase options and get full access to this chapter.


Adeola O., Lawrence B.V., Sutton A.C. and Cline T.R. (1995) Phytase-induced changes in mineral utilisation in zinc-supplemented diets for pigs. Journal of Animal Science 73, 3384–3391.
Anke M., Groppel B., Reisseg W., Ludke H., Grun M. and Dittrich G. (1973a) Manganmangel beim Wiederkauer 3. Manganmangelbedingte Fortpflanzungs-, Skelett- und Nervenstorungen bei weiblichen Wiederkauern und ihren Nachkommen. Archiv für Tierernahrung 23, 197–211.
Anke M., Hennig A., Groppel B., Dittrich G. and Grun M. (1973b) Manganmangel beim Wiederkauer. 4. Der Einfluss des Manganmangels auf den Gehalt neugeborener Lammer an Fett, Protein, Mangan, Asche, Kalzium, Phosphor, Zink und Kupfer. Archiv für Tierernahrung 23, 213–223.
Arredondo M. and Munez M.T. (2005) Iron and copper metabolism. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 26, 313–327.
Arredondo M.A., Casas G.A. and Stein H.H. (2019) Increasing levels of microbial phytase increases the digestibility of energy and minerals in diets fed to pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 248, 27–36.
Atkinson S.A., Shah J.K., Webber C.E., Gibson I.L. and Gibson R.S. (1993) A multi-element isotopic tracer assessment of true fractional absorption of minerals from formula with additives of calcium, phosphorus, zinc, copper and iron in young piglets. Journal of Nutrition 123, 1586–1593.
Attia Y.A., Qota E.M., Bovera F., El-Din A.E.T. and Mansour S.A. (2010) Effect of amount and source of manganese and/or phytase supplementation on productive and reproductive performance and some physiological traits of dual purpose cross-bred hens in the tropics. British Poultry Science 51, 235–245.
Aydemir T.B. and Cousins R.J. (2009) The multiple faces of the metal transporter ZIP14 (SLC39A14). Journal of Nutrition 148, 174–184.
Bai S., Lu L., Wang R., Xi L., Zhang L. and Luo X. (2012) Manganese source affects manganese transport and gene expression of divalent metal transporter 1 in the small intestine of broilers. British Journal of Nutrition 108, 267–276.
Bai S., Peng J., Zhang K., Ding X., Wang J. et al. (2020a) Effects of dietary iron concentration on manganese utilization in broilers fed with manganese-lysine chelate-supplemented diet. Biological Trace Element Research 198, 231–242.
Bai S., Peng J., Zhang K., Ding X., Wang J. et al. (2020b) Effects of dietary iron on manganese utilization in broilers fed with corn-soybean meal diet. Biological Trace Element Research 194, 514–524.
Baker D.H. and Odohu G.W. (1994) Manganese utilisation in the chick: effects of excess phosphorus on chicks fed manganese deficient diets. Poultry Science 73, 1162–1165.
Bao Y.M., Choct M., Iji P.A. and Bruerton K. (2007) Effect of organically complexed copper, iron, manganese and zinc on broiler performance, mineral excretion and accumulation in tissues. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 16, 448–455.
Bentley O.G. and Phillips P.H. (1951) The effect of low manganese rations upon dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 34, 396–403.
Berger L.L. (1995) Why do we need a new NRC data base? Animal Feed Science and Technology 53, 99–107.
Biehl R.R., Baker D.H. and DeLuca H.F. (1995) 1 α-Hydroxylated cholecalciferol compounds act additively with microbial phytase to improve phosphorus, zinc and manganese utilization in chicks fed soy-based diets. Journal of Nutrition 125, 2407–2416.
Black J.R., Ammerman C.B. and Henry P.R. (1985) Effect of quantity and route of manganese monoxide on feed intake and serum manganese of ruminants. Journal of Dairy Science 68, 433–436.
Brebner J., Thornton I., McDonald P. and Suttle N.F. (1985) The release of trace elements from soils under conditions of simulated rumenal and abomasal digestion. In: Mills C.F., Bremner I. and Chesters J.K. (eds) Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals . Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, UK, pp. 850–852.
Brown T.F. and Zeringue L.K. (1994) Laboratory evaluations of solubility and structural integrity of complexed and chelated trace mineral supplements. Journal of Dairy Science 77, 181–189.
Buchanan-Smith J.G., Evans E. and Poluch S.O. (1974) Mineral analyses of corn silage produced in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 54, 253–256.
Carter J.C., Miller W.J., Neathery M.W., Gentry R.P., Stake P.E. and Blackmon D.M. (1974) Manganese metabolism with oral and intravenous 54Mn in young calves as influenced by supplemental manganese. Journal of Animal Science 380, 1284–1290.
Caskey C.D. and Norris L.C. (1940) Micromelia in adult fowl caused by manganese deficiency during embryonic development. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 44, 332–335.
Choi E.-K., Aring L., Das al. (2020) Impact of dietary manganese on experimental colitis in mice. The FASEB Journal 34, 2929–2943.
Davidson L. and Lonnerdahl B. (1989) Fe-saturation and proteolysis of human lactoferrin: effect on brush-border receptor-mediated uptake of Fe and Mn. American Journal of Physiology–Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology , 257, G930–G934.
Davis C.D., Wolf T.L. and Greger J.L. (1992) Varying levels of dietary manganese and iron affect absorption and gut endogenous losses of manganese by rats. Journal of Nutrition 122, 1300–1308.
Dibner J., Richards J.D., Kitchell M.I. and Quiroz M.A. (2007) Metabolic challenges and early bone development. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 16, 126–137.
Doisey E.A. Jr (1973) Micronutrient controls on biosynthesis of clotting proteins and cholesterol. In: Hemphill D.D. (ed.) Trace Substances in Environmental Health – 6 . University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.
Egan A.R. (1972) Reproductive responses to supplemental zinc and manganese in grazing Dorset Horn ewes. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 12, 131–135.
Felber D.M., Wu Y. and Zhao N. (2019) Regulation of the metal transporters Zip14 and Znt10 by manganese intake in mice. Nutrients 11, 2099.
Finley J.W. (1999) Manganese absorption and retention by young women is associated with serum ferritin concentration. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70, 37–43.
Gallup W.D. and Norris L.C. (1939a) The amount of manganese required to prevent perosis in the chick. Poultry Science 18, 76–82.
Gallup W.D. and Norris L.C. (1939b) The effect of a deficiency of manganese in the diet of the hen. Poultry Science 18, 83–88.
Garrel C., Fowler P.A. and Al-Gubory K.H. (2010) Developmental changes in antioxidant enzymatic defences against oxidative stress in sheep placentomes. Journal of Endocrinology 205, 107–116.
Garrick M.D., Dolan K.G., Horbinski C., Ghoio A.J., Higgins D. et al. (2003) DMT 1: a mammalian transporter for multiple metals. Biometals 16, 41–54.
Ghosh A., Mandal G.P., Roy A. and Patra A.K. (2016) Effects of supplementation of manganese with or without phytase on growth performance, carcass traits, muscle and tibia composition, and immunity in broiler chickens. Livestock Science 191, 80–85.
Gladstones J.S. and Drover D.P. (1962) The mineral composition of lupins. 1. A survey of the copper, molybdenum and manganese contents of lupins in the south west of Western Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 2, 46–53.
Grace N.D. (1973) Effect of high dietary Mn levels on the growth rate and the level of mineral elements in the plasma and soft tissues of sheep. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 16, 177–180.
Grace N.D. (1983) Amounts and distribution of mineral elements associated with fleece-free empty body weight gains in grazing sheep. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 26, 59–70.
Grace N.D. and Lee J. (1990) Effect of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn supplementation on the elemental content of soft tissues and bone in sheep grazing ryegrass/white clover pasture. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 33, 635–647.
Grace N.D. and Gooden J.M. (1980) Effect of increasing intakes of Zn, Cu, and Mn on their secretion via bile and pancreatic juice and their excretion in faeces and urine in sheep fed lucerne pellets. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 23, 293–298.
Gregory E.M. and Fridovich I. (1974) Superoxide dismutases: properties, distribution, and functions. In: Hoekstra W.G., Suttie J.W., Ganther H.E. and Mertz W. (eds) Trace Element Metabolism in Animals – 2 . University Park Press, Baltimore, Maryland, pp. 486–488.
Gresakova L., Venglovska K. and Cobanova K. (2016) Dietary manganese source does not affect Mn, Zn and Cu tissue deposition and the activity of manganese-containing enzymes in lambs. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 38, 138–144.
Halpin K.M. and Baker D.H. (1986) Long-term effects of corn soyabean meal, wheat bran and fish meal on manganese utilisation in the chick. Poultry Science 65, 1371–1374.
Hansen S.L. and Spears J.W. (2008) Impact of copper deficiency in cattle on proteins involved in iron metabolism. FASEB Journal 22, 443–445.
Hansen S.L. and Spears J.W. (2009) Bioaccessibility of iron from soil is increased by silage fermentation. Journal of Dairy Science 92, 2896–2905.
Hansen S.L., Spears J.W., Lloyd K.E. and Whisnant C.S. (2006a) Growth, reproductive performance and manganese status of heifers fed varying concentrations of manganese. Journal of Animal Science 84, 3375–3380.
Hansen S.L., Spears J.W., Lloyd K.E. and Whisnant C.S. (2006b) Feeding a low manganese diet to heifers during gestation impairs foetal growth and development. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 4304–4311.
Hartmans J. (1974) Tracing and treating mineral disorders in cattle under field conditions. In: Hoekstra W.G., Suttie J.W., Ganther H.E. and Mertz W. (eds) Trace Element Metabolism in Animals – 2 . University Park Press, Baltimore, Maryland, pp. 261–273.
Henry P.R. (1995) Manganese bioavailability. In: Ammerman C.B., Baker D.H. and Lewis A.J. (eds) Bioavailability of Nutrients for Animals . Academic Press, New York, pp. 239–256.
Henry P.R., Ammerman C.B. and Miles R.D. (1989) Relative bioavailability of manganese in a manganese–methionine complex for broiler chicks. Poultry Science 68, 107–112.
Hidiroglou M. (1975) Mn uptake by the ovaries and reproductive tract of cycling and anestrous ewes. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 53, 969–972.
Hidiroglou M., Ivan M., Bryoa M.K., Ribble C.S., Janzen E.D., Proulx J.G. and Elliot J.I. (1990) Assessment of the role of manganese in congenital joint laxity and dwarfism in calves. Annales de Recherches Vétérinaires 21, 281–284.
Hill R. (1967) Vitamin D and manganese in the nutrition of the chick. British Journal of Nutrition 21, 507–512.
Hill R. and Mathers J.W. (1968) Manganese in the nutrition and metabolism of the pullet. 1. Shell thickness and manganese content of eggs from birds given a diet of low or high manganese content. British Journal of Nutrition 22, 635–643.
Horning K.J., Caito S.W., Tipps K.G., Bowman A.B. and Aschner M. (2015) Manganese is essential for neuronal health. Annual Reviews of Nutrition 35, 71–108.
Howes A.D. and Dyer I.A. (1971) Diet and supplemental mineral effects on manganese metabolism in newborn calves. Journal of Animal Science 32, 141–145.
Huang C.F., Stein H.H., Zhang L.Y., Defa Li and Lai C.H. (2017) Concentrations of minerals in pig feed ingredients commonly used in China. Translational Animal Science 1, 126–136.
Hurley L.S. (1981) Teratogenic effects of manganese, zinc and copper in nutrition. Physiological Reviews 61, 249–295.
Hurley L.S. and Keen C.L. (1987) Manganese. In: Mertz W. (ed.) Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition , Vol. II. Academic Press, New York.
Ibáñez M.A., de Blas C., Cámara L. and Mateos G.G. (2020) Chemical composition, protein quality and nutritive value of commercial soybean meals produced from beans from different countries: a meta-analytical study. Animal Feed Science and Technology 267, 114531.
Irani F., Janmohammadi H., Kianfar R. and Sahraei M. (2019) Evaluation of chemical characteristics and effects of different manganese sources on kinetics of manganese absorption and performance of broiler chickens. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science 9, 463–471.
Jenkins K.J. and Hidiroglou M. (1991) Tolerance of the pre-ruminant calf for excess manganese or zinc in milk replacer. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 1047–1053.
Johnson P.E., Lykken G.I. and Kortnta E.D. (1991) Absorption and biological half-life in humans of intrinsic and extrinsic 54Mn tracers from foods of plant origin. Journal of Nutrition 121, 711–717.
Johnson S.R. (1943) Studies with swine on rations extremely low in manganese. Journal of Animal Science 2, 14–22.
Jukes T.H. (1940) Effect of choline and other supplements on perosis. Journal of Nutrition 20, 445–458.
Kealy K.D. and Sullivan T.W. (1966) Studies on manganese requirement and interactions in the diet of young turkeys. Poultry Science 45, 1352–1358.
Kirchgessner M. and Neese K.R. (1976) Copper, manganese and zinc content of the whole body and in carcase cuts of veal calves at different weights. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und-Forschung 161, 1–12.
Knowles S.O. and Grace N.D. (2014) A recent assessment of the elemental composition of New Zealand pastures in relation to meeting the dietary requirements of grazing livestock. Journal of Animal Science 92, 303–310 .
Lapierre H., Vazquez-Anon M., Parker D., Dubreuil P. and Lobley G.E. (2007) Absorption of 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoate in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 2937–2940.
Lassiter J.W. and Morton J.D. (1968) Effects of a low manganese diet on certain ovine characteristics. Journal of Animal Science 27, 776–779.
Leach R.M. Jr and Harris E.D. (1997) Manganese. In: O’Dell B.L. and Sunde R.A. (eds) Handbook of Nutritionally Essential Mineral Elements . Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 335–356.
Leeson S. and Caston L. (2008) Using minimal supplements of trace minerals as a method of reducing trace mineral content of poultry manure. Animal Feed Science and Technology 142, 339–347.
Legleiter L.R., Spears J.W. and Lloyd K.E. (2005) Influence of dietary manganese on performance, lipid metabolism and carcass composition of growing and finishing steers. Journal of Animal Science 83, 2434–2439.
Li S., Luo X., Crenshaw T.D., Kuang X., Shao G. and Yu S. (2004) Use of chemical characteristics to predict the relative bioavailability of supplemental organic manganese sources for broilers. Journal of Animal Science 82, 2352–2363.
Li S., Lin Y., Lu L., Lin X., Wang Z. et al. (2011) An estimation of the manganese requirement for broilers from 1 to 21 days of age. Biological Trace Element Research 143, 939–948.
Liao X.D., Wang G., Lu L., Zhang L.Y., Lan Y.X., Li S.F. and Luo X.G. (2019) Effect of manganese source on manganese absorption and expression of related transporters in the small intestine of broilers. Poultry Science 98, 4994–5004 .
Liu A.C.-H., Heinrichs B.S. and Leach R.M. Jr (1994) Influence of manganese deficiency on the characteristics of proteoglycans of avian epiphyseal growth plate cartilage. Poultry Science 73, 663–669.
Liu Y., Ma Y.L, Zhao J., Vazquez-Añón M. and Stein H.H. (2014) Digestibility and retention of zinc, copper, manganese, iron, calcium, and phosphorus in pigs fed diets containing inorganic or organic minerals. Journal of Animal Science 92, 3407–3415.
Longstaff M. and Hill R. (1972) The hexosamine and uronic acid contents of the matrix of shells of eggs from pullets fed on diets of different manganese content. British Poultry Science 13, 377–385.
Lonnerdal B., Keen C.L. and Hurley L.S. (1985) Manganese-binding proteins in human and cow’s milk. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 41, 550–559.
Lu L., Luo X.G., Ji C., Liu B. and Yu S.X. (2007) Effect of manganese supplementation on carcass traits, meat quality and lipid oxidation in broilers. Journal of Animal Science 85, 812–822.
Lu L., Chang B., Liao X., Wang R., Zhang L. and Luo X. (2016) Use of molecular biomarkers to estimate manganese requirements for broiler chickens from 22 to 42 d of age. British Journal of Nutrition , 116, 1512–1518.
Luo X.G., Su Q., Huang J.C. and Liu J.X. (1993) Effects on manganese (Mn) deficiency on tissue Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity and its mitochondrial ultrastructures in broiler chicks fed a practical diet. Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica 23, 97–101.
Lyons M. and Insko W.M. Jr (1937) Chondrodystrophy in the Chick Embryo Produced by Manganese Deficiency in the Diet of the Hen . Bulletin No. 371, Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station.
MAFF (1990) UK Tables of the Nutritive Value and Chemical Composition of Foodstuffs . In: Givens D.I. (ed.) Rowett Research Services, Aberdeen, UK.
Masters D.G., Paynter D.I., Briegel J., Baker S.K. and Purser D.B. (1988) Influence of manganese intake on body, wool and testicular growth of young rams and on the concentration of manganese and the activity of manganese enzymes in tissues. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 39, 517–524.
Mathers J.W. and Hill R. (1967) Factors affecting the retention of an oral dose of radioactive manganese by the chick. British Journal of Nutrition 21, 513–517.
Mathers J.W. and Hill R. (1968) Manganese in the nutrition and metabolism of the pullet. 2. The manganese contents of the tissues of pullets given diets of high or low manganese content. British Journal of Nutrition 22, 635–643.
Miles R.D., Henry P.R., Sampath V.C., Shivazad M. and Comer C.W. (2003) Relative bioavailability of novel chelates of manganese and copper for chicks. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 12, 417–423.
Miller K.B., Caton J.S., Schafer D.M., Smith D.J. and Finley J.W. (2000) High dietary manganese lowers heart magnesium in pigs fed a low-magnesium diet. Journal of Nutrition 130, 2032–2035.
Miltimore J.E., Mason J.L. and Ashby D.L. (1970) Copper, zinc, manganese and iron variation in five feeds for ruminants. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 50, 293–300.
Minson D.J. (1990) Forages in Ruminant Nutrition . Academic Press, San Diego, California, pp. 208–229.
Mitchell R.L. (1957) The trace element content of plants. Research UK , 10, 357–362.
Mohanna C. and Nys N. (1999) Changes in zinc and manganese availability in broiler chicks induced by vegetal and microbial phytase. Animal Feed Science and Technology 77, 241–253.
Mwangi S., Timmons J., Ao T., Paul M., Macalintal L. et al. (2019) Effect of manganese preconditioning and replacing inorganic manganese with organic manganese on performance of male broiler chicks. Poultry Science 98, 2105–2113.
Noetzold T.L., Vieira S.L., Favero A., Horn R.M., Silva C.M. and Martins G.B. (2020) Manganese requirements of broiler breeder hens. Poultry Science 99, 5814–5826.
NRC (1994) Nutrient Requirements of Poultry , 9th edn. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
NRC (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cows , 7th edn. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
NRC (2005) Mineral Tolerance of Animals , 2nd edn. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
NRC (2012) Nutrient Requirements of Swine , 11th edn. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
NRC (2016) Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle , 8th edn. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
Olukosi O.A., González-Ortiz G., Whitfield H. and Bedford M.R. (2020) Comparative aspects of phytase and xylanase effects on performance, mineral digestibility, and ileal phytate degradation in broilers and turkeys. Poultry Science 99, 1528–1539.
Pacheco B.H.C., Nakagi V.S., Kobashigawa E.H., Caniatto A.R.M, Faria D.E. and Faria Filho D.E. (2017) Dietary levels of zinc and manganese on performance of broilers between 1 to 42 days of age. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 19, 171–178.
Pallauf J., Kauer C., Most E., Habicht S.D. and Moch J. (2012) Impact of dietary manganese concentration on status criteria to determine manganese requirement in piglets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 96, 993–1002.
Paynter D. and Caple I.W. (1984) Age-related changes in activities of the superoxide dismutase enzymes in tissues of the sheep and the effect of dietary copper and manganese on these changes. Journal of Nutrition 114, 1909–1916.
Plumlee M.P., Thrasher D.M., Beeson W.M., Andrews F.N. and Parker H.E. (1956) The effects of a manganese deficiency upon the growth, development, and reproduction of swine. Journal of Animal Science 15, 352–367.
Rojas M.A., Dyer I.A. and Cassatt W.A. (1965) Manganese deficiency in the bovine. Journal of Animal Science 24, 664–667.
Ruiz-Ascacibar I., Stoll P., Bee G. and Schlegel P. (2019) Dynamics of the mineral composition and deposition rates in the empty body of entire males, castrates and female pigs. Animal 13, 50–58.
Rutherfurd S.M., Darragh A.J., Hendriks W.H., Prosser C.G. and Lowry D. (2006) Mineral retention in three-week-old piglets fed goat and cow milk infant formulas. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 4520–4526.
Saldanha M.M., Itallo C.S., Araújo M.V., Triguineli D.P., Vaz F.N.A. et al. (2020) Relative bioavailability of manganese in relation to proteinate and sulfate sources for broiler chickens from one to 20 d of age. Poultry Science 99, 5647–5652.
Sands J.S. and Smith M.O. (1999) Broilers in heat stress conditions: effects of dietary manganese proteinate or chromium picolinate supplementation. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 8, 280–287.
Sands J.S. and Smith M.O. (2002) Effects of dietary manganese proteinate or chromium picolinate supplementation on plasma insulin, glucagons, glucose and serum lipids in broiler chickens reared under thermoneutral or heat stress conditions. International Journal of Poultry Science 1, 145–149.
Sawyer J.T., Tittor A.W., Apple J.K., Morgan J.B., Maxwell C.V., Rakes L.K. and Fakler T.M. (2006) Effects of supplemental manganese on performance of growing–finishing pigs and pork quality during retail display. Journal of Animal Science 85, 1046–1053.
Schaible P.J., Bandemer S.L. and Davidson J.A. (1938) The Manganese Content of Feedstuffs and its Relation to Poultry Nutrition . Technical Bulletin No. 159, Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station.
Scrutton M.C., Utter M.F. and Mildvan A.S. (1966) Pyruvate carboxylase. 6. The presence of tightly bound manganese. Journal of Biological Chemistry 241, 3480–3487.
Scrutton M.C., Griminger P. and Wallace J.C. (1972) Pyruvate carboxylase: bound metal content of the vertebrate liver enzyme as a function of diet and species. Journal of Biological Chemistry 247, 3305–3313.
Silanpaa M. (1982) Micronutrients and the Nutrient Status of Soils: A Global Study . Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
Smith M.O., Sherman I.L., Miller L.C. and Robbins K.R. (1995) Relative biological availability of manganese from manganese proteinate, manganese sulphate and manganese oxide in broilers reared at elevated environmental temperatures. Poultry Science 74, 702–707.
Smith M.R., Fernandes J., Go Y.M. and Jones D.P. (2017) Redox dynamics of manganese as a mitochondrial life-death switch. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 482, 388–398.
SRUC (2011) Nutritional and metabolic disorders. Veterinary Services Monthly Reports 9 (September). Scottish Rural Universities and Colleges.
St Clair D. (2004) Manganese superoxide dismutase: genetic variation and regulation. Journal of Nutrition 134, 3190S–3191S.
Staley G.P., Van der Lugt J.J., Axsel G. and Loock A.H. (1994) Congenital skeletal malformations in Holstein calves associated with putative manganese deficiency. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 65, 73–78.
Suttle N.F. (1979) Copper, iron, manganese and zinc concentrations in the carcases of lambs and calves and the relationship to trace element requirements for growth. British Journal of Nutrition 42, 89–96.
Suttle N.F. (2000) Minerals in livestock production. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 13, 1–9.
Suttle N.F. (2010) Manganese. In: Mineral Nutrition of Livestock , 4th edn. CAB Ineternational, Wallingford, UK.
Suttle N.F., Abrahams P. and Thornton I. (1984) The role of a soil × dietary sulfur interaction in the impairment of copper absorption by soil ingestion in sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 103, 81–86.
Suttle N.F., Bell J., Thornton I. and Agyriaki A. (2003) Predicting the risk of cobalt deprivation in grazing livestock from soil composition data. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 25, 33–39.
Than N.G., Romero R, Tarca A.L., Draghici S., Erez O. et al. (2009) Mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase mRNA expression in human chorioamniotic membranes and its association with labor, inflammation, and infection. Journal of Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 22, 1000–1013.
Underwood E.J. and Suttle F. (1999) The Mineral Nutrition of Livestock , 3rd edn. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Valero G., Alley M.R., Badcoe L.M., Manktellow B.W., Merral M. and Lowes G.S. (1990) Chondrodystrophy in calves associated with manganese deficiency. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 38, 161–167.
Wang Z., Wang L., Wang Z., Wang J. and Liu R. (2013) Effects of manganese deficiency on serum hormones and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in chicks. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 31, 285–292.
Wedekind K.J., Titgemeyer E.C., Twardock R. and Baker D.H. (1991) Phosphorus but not calcium affects manganese absorption and turnover in chicks. Journal of Nutrition 121, 1776–1786.
Weiss W.P. and Socha M.T. (2005) Dietary manganese for dry and lactating cows. Journal of Dairy Science 88, 2517–2523.
White C.L., Robson A.D. and Fisher H.M. (1981) Variation in the nitrogen, sulfur, selenium, cobalt, manganese, copper and zinc contents of grain from wheat and two lupin species grown in a Mediterranean climate. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 32, 47–59.
White P.J. and Windsor P.A. (2012) Congenital chondrodystrophy of unknown origin in beef herds. Veterinary Journal 193, 336–343.
Whitehead C.C., Fleming R.H., Julian R. and Sorensen P. (2003) Skeletal problems associated with selection for increased production. In: Muir W. and Aggrey S. (eds) Poultry Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology . CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 29–52.
Wilson J.G. (1966) Bovine functional infertility in Devon and Cornwall: response to manganese supplementation. Veterinary Record 79, 562–566.
Wong G.H.W. and Goeddel D.V. (1988) Induction of manganous superoxide dismutase by tumour necrosis factor: possible protective mechanism. Science 242, 941–944.
Wong-Valle J., Henry P.R., Ammerman C.B. and Rao P.V. (1989) Estimation of the relative bioavailability of manganese sources for sheep. Journal of Animal Science 67, 2409–2414.
Xiao J.F, Zhang Y.N., Wu S.G., Zhang H.J., Yue H.Y. and Qi G.H. (2014) Manganese supplementation enhances the synthesis of glycosaminoglycan in eggshell membrane: a strategy to improve eggshell quality in laying hens. Poultry Science 93.
Yan F. and Waldroup P.W. (2006) Evaluation of Mintrex manganese as a source of manganese for young broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science 5, 708–713.
Zanetti D., Godoi L.A., Estrada M.M., Engle T.E., Silva B.C. et al. (2017) Estimating mineral requirements of Nellore beef bulls fed with or without inorganic mineral supplementation and the influence on mineral balance. Journal of Animal Science 95, 1696–1706.
Zhang Y.N., Zhang H.J., Wu S.G., Yue H.Y., Wang J. and Qi G.H. (2018) Dietary manganese supplementation affects mammillary knobs of eggshell ultrastructure in laying hens. Poultry Science 97, 1253–1262.
Zhang H., Pan S., Zhang K., Michiels J., Zeng Q. et al. (2020a) Impact of dietary manganese on intestinal barrier and inflammatory response in broilers challenged with Salmonella typhimurium . Microorganisms 8, 757–777.
Zhang Y.N., Wang S., Huang X.B., Li K.C., Chen W., Ruan D. et al. (2020b) Estimation of dietary manganese requirement for laying duck breeders: effects on productive and reproductive performance, egg quality, tibial characteristics, and serum biochemical and antioxidant indices. Poultry Science 99, 5752–5762.
Zhang Y.N., Wang S., Li K.C., Ruan D., Chen W. et al. (2020c) Estimation of dietary zinc requirement for laying duck breeders: effects on productive and reproductive performance, egg quality, tibial characteristics, plasma biochemical and antioxidant indices, and zinc deposition. Poultry Science 99, 454–462.
Zhu Y., Lu L., Li W., Zhang L., Ji C. et al. (2015) Effect of dietary manganese on antioxidant status and expression levels of heat-shock proteins and factors in tissues of laying broiler breeders under normal and high environmental temperatures. British Journal of Nutrition 114, 1965–1974.

Information & Authors


Published In

ISBN (ePDF): 978-1-78924-093-1
ISBN (ePUB): 978-1-78924-094-8
ISBN (hardback): 978-1-78924-092-4


Cover date: 30 May 2022
Published online: 13 July 2022





Neville Suttle
Moredun Foundation, UK

Metrics & Citations





Export citation

Select the format you want to export the citations of this publication.


View Options

Get Access

Login Options

Restore your content access

Enter your email address to restore your content access:

Note: This functionality works only for purchases done as a guest. If you already have an account, log in to access the content to which you are entitled.

View options


View PDF

Full Text

View Full Text







Copy the content Link

Share on social media

Related Articles

Skip the navigation