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14 July 2022

Pregnancy Diagnosis and Management

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6.7 References

Beccaglia, M., Anastasi, P., Grimaldi, E., Rota, A., Faustini, M., et al. (2008a) Accuracy of the prediction of parturition date through ultrasonographic measurement of fetal parameters in the queen. Veterinary Research Communications 32, 99–101.
Beccaglia, M., Faustini, M., and Luvoni, G. C. (2008b) Ultrasonographic study of deep portion of diencephalo-telencephalic vesicle for the determination of gestational age of the canine foetus. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 43, 367–370.
Blanco, P. G., Vercellini, R., Rube, A., Rodríguez, R., Arias, D. O., et al. (2016) Evaluation of feline uterine and umbilical arteries blood flow in a pharmacologically induced abnormal gestation model. Theriogenology 86, 2323–2327.
Braun, B. C., Vargas, A., and Jewgenow, K. (2012) The molecular detection of relaxin and its receptor RXFP1 in reproductive tissue of Felis catus and Lynx pardinus during pregnancy. Reproduction 143, 399–410.
Brito, A.B., Miranda, S.A., Ruas, M.R., Santos, R.R., and Domingues, S.F.S. (2010) Assessment of feline fetal viability by conceptus echobiometry and triplex Doppler ultrasonography of uterine and umbilical arteries. Animal Reproduction Science 122, 276–281.
Bücheler, J. (1999) Fading kitten syndrome and neonatal isoerythrolysis. Veterinary Clinics of North American Small Animal Practice 29, 853–870.
Carlin, A. and Alfirevic, Z. (2008) Physiological changes of pregnancy and monitoring. Best Practice and Research Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology 22, 801–823.
Concannon, P., Hodgson, B., and Lein, D. (1980) Reflex LH release in estrous cats following single and multiple copulations. Biology of Reproduction 23, 111–117.
Concannon, P., Tsutsui, T., and Shille, V. (2001) Embryo development, hormonal requirements and maternal responses during canine pregnancy. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement 57, 169–179.
DiGangi, B. A., Griffin, B., Levy, J. K., Smith, B. F., and Baker, H. J. (2010) Use of a commercially available relaxin test for detection of pregnancy in cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 237, 1267–1274.
England, G. C. W. (2010) Physiology and endocrinology of the female. In: England, G. C. W. and Heimendahl, A. (eds) BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Reproduction and Neonatology . British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, UK, pp. 1–12.
Fournier, A., Masson, M., Corbière, F., Mila, H., Mariani, C., et al. (2017) Epidemiological analysis of reproductive performances and kitten mortality rates in 5,303 purebred queens of 45 different breeds and 28,065 kittens in France. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 52, 153–157.
Fresno, L., Rodriguez-Gil, J. E., Rigau, T., Pastor, J., and Rivera del Alamo, M.M. (2012) Modulation of the biochemical composition of amniotic and allantoic fluids as a control mechanism of feline foetal development. Placenta 33, 522–527.
García Mitacek, M. C., Stornelli, M. C., Praderio, R. G., de la Sota, R. L., and Stornelli, M. A. (2015) Ultrasonographic and progesterone changes during Days 21 to 63 of pregnancy in queens. Theriogenology 84, 1131–1141.
Gatel, L., Rault, D., Chalvet-Monfray, K., Saunders, J., and Buff, S. (2015) Prediction of parturition time in queens using radiography and ultrasonography. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 44, 241–246.
Hand, M. S., Thatcher, C. D., Remillard, R. L., Roudebush, P., and Novotny, B. (2010) Feeding reproducing cats. In: Hand, M. S., Thatcher, C. D., Remillard, R. L., Roudebush, P., and Novotny, B. (eds) Small Animal Clinical Nutrition . Mark Morris Institute, Topeka, Kansas, pp. 401–413.
Haney, D. R., Levy, J. K., Newell, S. M., Graham, J. P., and Gorman, S. P. (2003) Use of fetal skeletal mineralization for prediction of parturition date in cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223, 1614–1616.
Johnston, S. D., Root Kustritz, M. V., and Olson, P. N. S. (2001) Feline pregnancy. In: Johnston, S. D., Root Kutritz, M. V. and Olson, P. N. S. (eds) Canine and Feline Theriogenology . Saunders, London, pp. 414–430.
Keiser, R., Reichler, I. M., and Balogh, O. (2017) Are foetal ultrasonographic and maternal blood progesterone measurements near parturition reliable predictors of the time of birth in the domestic cat? Reproduction in Domestic Animals 52, 487–494.
Knospe, C. (2002) Periods and stages of the prenatal development of the domestic cat. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 31, 37–51.
Levy, X. and England, C.W. (2010) Pregnancy diagnosis, normal pregnancy and parturition in the queen. In: England, G. C. W. and Heimendahl, A. (eds) BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Reproduction and Neonatalogy . British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, UK, pp. 98–105.
Lopate, C. (2018) Gestational aging and determination of parturition date in the bitch and queen using ultrasonography and radiography. Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practices 48, 617–638.
Malandain, E., Rault, D., Froment, E., Baudon, S., Desquilbet, L., et al. (2011) Follicular growth monitoring in the female cat during estrus. Theriogenology 76, 1337–1346.
Mathews, K. A. (2008) Pain management for the pregnant, lactating, and neonatal to pediatric cat and dog. Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 38, 1291–1308.
Miglino, M. A., Ambrósio, C. E., Martins, D. dos, S., Wenceslau, C. V., Pfarrer, C., et al. (2006) The carnivore pregnancy: The development of the embryo and fetal membranes. Theriogenology 66, 1699–1702.
Papich, M. G. and Davis, L. E., 1986. Drug therapy during pregnancy and in the neonate. Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 16, 525–538.
Pereira, B. S., Freire, L. M. P., Pinto, J. N., Domingues, S. F. S., and Silva, L. D. M. (2012) Triplex Doppler evaluation of uterine arteries in cyclic and pregnant domestic cats. Animal Reproduction Science 130, 99–104.
Pieri, N., Souza, A., Casals, J., Roballo, K., Ambrósio, C., et al. (2015) Comparative development of embryonic age by organogenesis in domestic dogs and cats. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 50, 625–631.
Rebuelto, M. and Loza, M. E. (2010) Antibiotic treatment of dogs and cats during pregnancy. Veterinary Medicine International 2010:385640.
Root Kustritz, M. V. (2006) Clinical management of pregnancy in cats. Theriogenology 66, 145–150.
Scotti, L., Di Salvo, P., Bocci, F., Pieramati, C., and Polisca, A. (2008) Doppler evaluation of maternal and foetal vessels during normal gestation in queen. Theriogenology 69, 1111–1119.
Siemieniuch, M. J., Jursza, E., Szostek, A. Z., Skarzynski, D. J., Boos, A., et al. (2012) Steroidogenic capacity of the placenta as a supplemental source of progesterone during pregnancy in domestic cats. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 10, 89.
Smith, F. O. (2011) Prenatal care of the bitch and queen, In: Peterson, M. E. and Kutzler, M. A. (eds) Small Animals Pediatrics: The First 12 Months of Life . Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri, pp. 1–10.
Socha, P. and Janowski, T. (2019) Development of specific fetometric formulas of ICC and BP for predicting the parturition date in Maine Coon queens. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 54, 622–626.
Stewart, D. R. and Stabenfeldt, G. H. (1985) Relaxin activity in the pregnant cat. Biology of Reproduction 32, 848–854.
Topie, E., Bencharif, D., Briand, L., and Tainturier, D. (2015) Early pregnancy diagnosis and monitoring in the queen using ultrasonography with a 12.5 MHz probe. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 17, 87–93.
Tsutsui, T., Suzuki, Y., Toyonaga, M., Oba, H., Mizutani, T., et al. (2009) The role of the ovary for the maintenance of pregnancy in cats. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 44, 120–124.
van Dorsser, F. D. H., Lasano, S., and Steinetz, B. G. (2007) Pregnancy diagnosis in cats using a rapid, bench-top kit to detect relaxin in urine. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 42, 111–112.
Verstegen, J. P., Onclin, K., Silva, L. D., and Donnay, I. (1993a) Abortion induction in the cat using prostaglandin F2 alpha and a new anti-prolactinic agent, cabergoline. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement 47, 411–417.
Verstegen, J. P., Onclin, K., Silva, L. D., Wouters-Ballman, P., Delahaut, P., et al. (1993b) Regulation of progesterone during pregnancy in the cat: Studies on the roles of corpora lutea, placenta and prolactin secretion. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement 47, 165–173.
Verstegen-Onclin, K. and Verstegen, J. (2008) Endocrinology of pregnancy in the dog: A review. Theriogenology 70, 291–299.
Wichert, B., Schade, L., Gebert, S., Bucher, B., Zottmaier, B., et al. (2009) Energy and protein needs of cats for maintenance, gestation and lactation. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 11, 808–815.
Zambelli, D. (2012) Feline neonatal physiology, behavior, and socialization. In: Lopate, C. (ed.) Management of Pregnant and Neonatal Dogs, Cats, and Exotic Pets . John Wiley & Sons, Ames, Iowa, pp. 147–158.
Zambelli, D., Caneppele, B., Bassi, S., and Paladini, C. (2002a) Ultrasound aspects of fetal and extrafetal structures in pregnant cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 4, 95–106.
Zambelli, D., Castagnetti, C., Belluzzi, S., and Bassi, S. (2002b) Correlation between the age of the conceptus and various ultrasonographic measurements during the first 30 days of pregnancy in domestic cats (Felis catus). Theriogenology 57, 1981–1987.
Zambelli, D., Castagnetti, C., Belluzzi, S., and Paladini, C. (2004) Correlation between fetal age and ultrasonographic measurements during the second half of pregnancy in domestic cats (Felis catus). Theriogenology 62, 1430–1437.
Zschockelt, L., Amelkina, O., Siemieniuch, M. J., Koster, S., Jewgenow, K., et al. (2014) Corpora lutea of pregnant and pseudopregnant domestic cats reveal similar steroidogenic capacities during the luteal life span. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 144, 373–381.

Appendix 6.1

Usual drugs used in carnivores and their use during pregnancy according to Papich and Davis (1986). Classification:
A: Probably safe. Although specific studies may not have proved the safety of all drugs in dogs and cats, there are no reports of adverse effects in laboratory animals or in women.
B: Safe for use if used cautiously. Studies in laboratory animals may have uncovered some risk, but these drugs appear to be safe in dogs and cats or these drugs are safe if they are not administered when the animal is near term.
C: These drugs may have potential risks. Studies in people or laboratory animals have uncovered risks, and these drugs should be used cautiously, as a last resort when the benefit of therapy clearly outweighs the risks.
0: Contraindicated. These drugs have been shown to cause congenital malformations or embryotoxicity.
Drug categoriesMoleculeClassificationKnown side effects in different speciesForbidden period during pregnancySpecificities
Antimicrobial drugsBetalactamsAN/A or information not known
Specific Macrolide: TylosinBNo informationNo informationN/A or information not known 
SulfonamidesMice/Rat: congenital malformations, Women: neonatal icterusAvoid long-acting drugsN/A or information not known 
Trimethoprim-sulfadiazineTrimethoprim is teratogenic in rat but probably safe in other speciesN/A or information not knownN/A or information not known 
AminoglycosidesCNeurotoxic and nephrotoxic in fetusesN/A or information not knownGentamicin can be used cautiously if necessary 
MetronidazoleCongenital malformation and embryotoxicityFirst 3 weeksN/A or information not known 
ChloramphenicolDecrease protein synthesis in fetuses, particularly in bone marrowN/A or information not known 
FluoroquinolonesDArticular, cartilage defects in fetusesAfter 10 days post-ovulationN/A or information not known 
TetracyclineBone and teeth malformations in fetus and toxicity in motherN/A or information not known 
Specific aminoglycoside: StreptomycinNeurotoxic and nephrotoxic in fetuses 
Specific aminoglycoside: NeomycinAN/A or information not known
Anti-parasitic drugsPraziquantelAN/A or information not known 
AmitrazDWARNING Lethal in cats
Antifungal drugsMiconazoleAN/A or information not knownN/A or information not known 
KetoconazoleBTeratogenic and embryotoxic in rats, antiandrogenic, stillbirth in dogs   
Amphotericin BCCongenital anomalies   
GriseofulvinDTeratogenic in rats, skeleton and brain malformation in cats  
AnticancerDoxorubicinCTeratogenic and embryotoxicN/A or information not known 
AzathioprineCongenital malformation but used in women 
ChlorambucilTeratogenic and embryotoxic 
CisplatinTeratogenic, embryotoxic and nephrotoxic 
CyclophosphamideCongenital malformation, embryotoxic and nephrotoxic 
MethotrexateMalformation in newborn and embryotoxicity 
AnalgesicAcetaminophenCWARNING Toxic in cats 
Aspirin, salicylateEmbryotoxic in laboratory animalsLate in pregnancy: pulmonary hypertension and bleedingN/A or information not known 
Flunixin meglumineNo information 
IndomethacinN/A or information not knownLate in pregnancy: premature closure of ductus arteriosusToxic in DOGS 
PhenylbutazoneNo information (possible bone marrow suppression used in a long period)
AnestheticLidocaineASafe as all local anesthetic agents for local nerve block and epiduralN/A or information not known 
Naloxone Safe in newborns within a few minutes after birth   
MorphineBNeonatal sedation and respiratory depression => REVERSIBLE with naloxone in newborns after cesarean sections   
Fentanyl, Butorphanol, Codeine, Oxymorphone Safe for short-term use. Neonatal sedation and respiratory depression => REVERSIBLE with naloxone   
Acepromazine Neonatal central nervous system depressionAvoid near termN/A or information not known 
Atropine May cause fetal tachycardia but seem safeN/A or information not known 
Glycopyrrolate Safe in laboratory animals, does not cross the placenta as readily as atropine   
Isoflurane/sevoflurane N/A or information not known   
Ketamine Safe but may produce premature labor   
Xylazine, MethoxyfluraneCNeonatal depression in cesarean section use  
GastrointestinalAnti-acidsASafeSafety of ranitidine and cimetidine not established 
Anti-emeticsBProbably safe in short-term useNo information in dogs and cats, metoclopramide safe in laboratory animals 
LaxativeN/A or information not known 
LoperamideCAdverse effects in laboratory animals but not reported in dogs, cats, and humans 
MisoprostolDPregnancy terminationFrom 2d half of pregnancy: abortion
CardiovascularDigitalisAProbably safeN/A or information not known 
FurosemideBProbably safe   
Dopamine Probably safe at therapeutic dose but pregnancy termination at high dosesN/A or information not known 
Heparin Does not cross placentaN/A or information not known 
Theophylline No reports of adverse effect   
Quinidine Probably safe but may cause fetal bradycardia   
PropranololCFetal bradycardia, respiratory depression, neonatal hypoglycemiaAvoid near termN/A or information not known
Anti-convulsantPhenobarbitalBRare congenital defects and bleeding tendency in newborn but may be the best option that othersN/A or information not known 
DiazepamCCongenital malformations in laboratory animals and Human  
MyorelaxantsDantroleneCSafety not established
EndocrineThyroxineBDoes not cross the placentaN/A or information not known 
Betamethasone, Cortisone, Dexamethasone, FlumethasoneCIncreased incidence of cleft palates, and other congenital malformations and can induce premature labor and abortionN/A or information not knownAbortion in dogs 
Estradiol cypronateDMalformation of male and female genital tract + bone marrow aplasia 
Androgens Masculinization of fetuses 
Mitotane Adrenocortical necrosisN/A or information not knownForbidden


Dr Aime Johnson graduated from North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine in May of 2000. She entered private practice in North Central Texas where she spent a majority of her time working with performance horses, with a special interest in reproduction. She left private practice to complete a theriogenology residency at Texas A&M in 2005, and was board certified in the American College of Theriogenologists in August 2007. She joined the faculty at Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine in August 2007. Dr Johnson's research interests are all aspects of feline reproduction and non-surgical sterilization options for companion animals. She has also worked with other researchers involved with NIH funding for translational gene therapy to correct neurologic diseases children using a feline model. She has five children and is married to a veterinary anesthesiologist, also at Auburn.
Dr Michelle Kutzler graduated from Washington State University with a Bachelor of Science and Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree. After graduation, Dr Kutzler worked in dairy practice in Minnesota for four years before going to Cornell University to pursue a theriogenology residency under the supervision of Dr Vicki Meyers-Wallen and Dr Rob Gilbert. Dr Kutzler stayed on at Cornell University for a PhD under the tutelage of Dr Peter Nathanielsz. Her thesis research investigated the effects of dexamethasone on placental vascular blood flow. Since 2002, Dr Kutzler has been at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon. Dr Kutzler teaches numerous courses including Companion Animal Production, Mammalian Reproductive Biology, and Hormone Action. She has published several peer-reviewed papers and book chapters in the field of small animal Theriogenology as well as co-edited the book Small Animal Pediatrics. Dr Kutzler's articles on "Estrus induction and synchronization in canids and felids" and "Non-surgical methods of contraception and sterilization" were on the Elsevier list for the 25 most downloaded articles in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Dr Kutzler is on the Scientific Advisory Committee for the Alliance for Contraception in Cats and Dogs and the Chair of Scientific Committee for the 2020 International Symposium on Canine and Feline Reproduction. Dr Kutzler is also a member of the Morris Animal Foundation Veterinary Honor Roll. Dr Kutzer and her husband (Sean) of 23 years have 3 amazing children, including one who is following in her mother's footsteps at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine.

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Pages: 56 - 73
Editors: Dr Aime Johnson, Auburn University, USA and Dr Michelle Kutzler, Oregon State University, USA
ISBN (ePDF): 978-1-78924-709-1
ISBN (ePUB): 978-1-78924-710-7
ISBN (paperback): 978-1-78924-708-4


Cover date: 28 June 2022
Published online: 14 July 2022





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