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31 October 2022

Indian Gooseberry (Amla) (Phyllanthus emblica L.)


Phyllanthus emblica L. (family Phyllanthaceae) is commonly known as Indian gooseberry, which yields edible fruit. Indian gooseberry is eaten raw and used for culinary purposes. The fruit are rich in nutrients, vitamins, amino acids and minerals. Fresh or dried fruit, seeds, leaves, roots and bark are used in the preparation of herbal medicines in the Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Tibetan and Chinese systems of medicine. It is used as the primary ingredient in the preparation of Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations such as chyawanprash and triphala. It is also used in shampoos and hair oils. The fruit and other parts of the plant are rich in flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids, sterols and terpenoids. The fruit, seeds, leaves, roots and bark of the plant are used against varied ailments like diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, cancer, respiratory, neurological and other infectious disorders. This review summarizes the traditional uses, nutritional components, phytochemicals and biological activities of Indian gooseberry. Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of bioactive compounds, novel products or formulations of Indian gooseberry are also discussed.

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Professor Dharini Sivakumar, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa, obtained the prestigious South African Research Chair (SARChI) funding from the Department of Science and Innovation (DSI) / National Research Foundation (NRF) for "Phytochemical Food Network to Improve Nutritional Quality for Consumers". Her research programme focuses on establishing links by manipulating agronomic practices to improve phytonutrients; developing processes and methods or packaging to preserve phytonutrients; improving or developing fresh products or agro-processing rich in health-promoting compounds for "lunch boxes"; analysing nutrition and health relationships; gathering information on consumer behaviour and acceptance regarding nutritional quality; and formulating guidelines to improve phytochemical compounds via the farm-to-plate chain. These six steps closely link plant agronomics, food preservation and agro-processing to improve human health, livelihood and well-being. Diversification of crops using indigenous fruit and vegetable species has been identified as an important strategy for a healthy diet among the rural, peri-urban and urban regions of South Africa to alleviate the hidden hunger and to sustain food security. She has established a working programme with the rural African communities to promote cultivation and agro processing of traditional vegetables and fruits in Venda, South Africa which helped to develop entrepreneur skills, creation of employment, income generation and poverty alleviation.
Dr Michael Netzel’s (The University of Queensland, Australia) main research interests are related to phytochemicals/functional ingredients, their analytical determination, binding characteristics within the plant (food) matrix, structural modifications/degradation during processing and digestion, bioaccessibility as well as bioavailability and metabolism (“from the raw produce to the absorbed and metabolised bioactive compound”). Understanding in vitro bioaccessibility (matrix release and availability for intestinal absorption) as well as the much more complex in vivo bioavailability (including microbial degradation in the gut) of dietary phytochemicals are crucial in understanding and predicting their bioactivity and potential health benefits in humans. Assessing the “nutritional value” of Australian grown (native and non-native) fruits and vegetables in the context of a diverse, sustainable and healthy diet is the current focus of his research.
Associate Professor Yasmina Sultanbawa, The University of Queensland, Australia, has established a Training Centre funded by the Australian Research Council, that aims to transform the native Food and Agribusiness Sector through development of selected crops, foods and ingredients using an Indigenous governance group to oversee the process of converting Traditional Knowledge into Branded Products. Her research is focused within the agribusiness development framework, specifically in the area of food processing, preservation, food safety and nutrition. Her current research includes the minimisation of post-harvest losses through value addition and the search for natural preservatives to replace current synthetic chemicals. In addition, her research area also includes the challenge of nutrition security, micronutrient deficiency (hidden hunger), lack of diet diversity and nutritional losses in the food supply chain, which are addressed by her work with underutilized Australian plant species and potential new crops. Her work on Australian native plant foods is focused on incorporation of these plants in mainstream agriculture and diet diversification Working with indigenous communities to develop nutritious and sustainable value-added products from native plants for use in the food, feed, cosmetic and health care industries is a key strategy. The creation of employment, economic and social benefits to these remote communities is an anticipated outcome. She has established a Training Centre funded by the Australian Research Council, that aims to transform the native Food and Agribusiness Sector through development of selected crops, foods and ingredients using an Indigenous governance group to oversee the process of converting Traditional Knowledge into Branded Products.

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Pages: 490 - 514
Editors: Professor Dharini Sivakumar, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa, Dr Michael Netzel, The University of Queensland, Australia, and Dr Yasmina Sultanbawa, The University of Queensland, Australia
H.N. Murthy and G.G. Yadav
Indian Gooseberry (Amla) (Phyllanthus emblica L.)
ISBN (Hardback): 978-1-78924-804-3
ISBN (ePDF): 978-1-78924-805-0
ISBN (ePUB): 978-1-78924-806-7


Published online: 31 October 2022
Cover date: 31 October 2022





Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy* [email protected]
Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad, India
Guggalada Govardhana Yadav
Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad, India


Corresponding author: [email protected]

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