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25 June 2020

Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade)

Datasheet Types: Invasive species, Host plant

Abstract

This datasheet on Solanum sisymbriifolium covers Identity, Overview, Distribution, Dispersal, Biology & Ecology, Environmental Requirements, Natural Enemies, Impacts, Uses, Prevention/Control, Further Information.

Identity

Preferred Scientific Name
Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam.
Preferred Common Name
sticky nightshade
Other Scientific Names
Solanum balbisii Dunal
Solanum bipinnatifidum Larrañaga
Solanum branciifolium J.Jacq.
Solanum decurrens Balb.
Solanum edule Vell.
Solanum formosum Weinm.
Solanum inflatum Hornem.
Solanum mauritianum Willd. ex Roth
Solanum opuliflorum Port. ex Dunal
Solanum pilosum Raf.
Solanum rogersii S.Moore
Solanum sabeanum Buckley
Solanum subviscidum Schrank
Solanum thouinii C.C.Gmel.
Solanum viscidum Schweigg.
Solanum xanthacanthum Willd. ex Walp.
International Common Names
English
dense-thorn bitter apple
manacader
red buffalo-burr
viscid nightshade
wild tomato
Spanish
alco
cardo
comida de vibora
espina colorada
espino colorado
guidilla de campo
mullaca
ocote mullaca
putui
revienta caballo
tomatillo de campo
tomatillo espinudo
tutia
Chinese
suan jie qie
Portuguese
arrebenta-cavalo
joa das queimadas
joa de roca
joão bravo
mata-cavalo
puca-puca
Local Common Names
Bolivia
puka puka
tomatillo
wilawila
Germany
Klebriger Nachtschatten
Lithuania
pilkalapis baklazanas
South Africa
dense-thorned bitter apple
doringtamatie
tamatiedissel
wildetamatie
Sweden
blek taggborre

Pictures

Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowering habit. The Botanical Gardens, Warsaw, Poland. September 2006.
Flowering habit
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowering habit. The Botanical Gardens, Warsaw, Poland. September 2006.
©Hubert Śmietanka (Hiuppo)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowering habit. Botanical Gardens, Utrecht, Netherlands. July 2008.
Flowering habit
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowering habit. Botanical Gardens, Utrecht, Netherlands. July 2008.
©Pethan/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Mature and immature fruit in a spiny husk. Brazil. February 2012.
Fruit
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Mature and immature fruit in a spiny husk. Brazil. February 2012.
©João Medeiros/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flower. September 2016.
Flower
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flower. September 2016.
©prilfish/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowers. Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Janurary 2008.
Flowers
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowers. Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Janurary 2008.
©Leonardo Ré-Jorge/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowers. Jardín botánico De Kruidhof, Netherlands. August 2014.
Flowers
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Flowers. Jardín botánico De Kruidhof, Netherlands. August 2014.
©Dominicus Johannes Bergsma/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Foliage. Kluse, Germany. July 2017.
Foliage
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Foliage. Kluse, Germany. July 2017.
©Frank Vincentz/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Habit. Cambridge University Botanic Garden. June 2010.
Habit
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Habit. Cambridge University Botanic Garden. June 2010.
©Magnus Manske/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Leaf. Kluse, Germany. July 2017.
Leaf
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Leaf. Kluse, Germany. July 2017.
©Frank Vincentz/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Leaf. Cambridge University Botanic Garden. June 2010.
Leaf
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade); Leaf. Cambridge University Botanic Garden. June 2010.
©Magnus Manske/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0

Summary of Invasiveness

Solanum sisymbriifolium has been widely introduced as a trap crop for potato cyst nematodes. However, it is an aggressive weed that spreads by seeds and vegetatively by rhizomes. This species can be easily dispersed by animals (e.g. birds) and by human activity (e.g. seed-contaminated fodder, farm machinery, mud) and once established, it often grows forming dense spiny thickets that displace native vegetation and can become a serious weed in active pastures and ruderal areas. Currently, S. sisymbriifolium is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds and has been declared a noxious invasive weed in Australia, South Africa, USA, Cuba, Hungary, Italy, Spain, China and Japan.

Taxonomic Tree

This content is currently unavailable.

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

The Solanaceae family comprises 102 genera and 2480 species distributed worldwide, but overwhelmingly across tropical America (Stevens, 2020). Solanum with about 1400 species is the largest genus within the Solanaceae. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses have demonstrated that the formerly separate genera Lycopersicon, Cyphomandra, Normania and Triguera should be all nested within Solanum, thus, all species of these four genera have been transferred to Solanum. Molecular phylogenetic analyses also found that all Solanum species form a strongly supported monophyletic group characterized by a chromosome number based on x = 12 (Olmstead and Palmer, 1992; Olmstead and Sweere, 1994; Olmstead et al., 1999; Bohs, 2005; PBI Solanum Project, 2020).

Plant Type

Annual
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed / spore propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated

Description

The following description is adapted from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2020) and PBI Solanum Project (2020):
Herbs to small shrubs, annual or perennial, copiously armed, pubescent with glandular, many-celled, simple and stellate hairs. Stems erect, with yellow or orange-yellow, subulate prickles 2-10 × 1.5 mm. Leaves simple or sometimes pinnate; petiole 1.5-4 cm; leaf blade oblong or ovate, 4.5-10(-14) × 2.5-5(-8) cm, stellate pubescent, sometimes shaggy, often armed along main veins on both surfaces, pinnately lobed or parted; lobes pinnately lobed or dentate, apex acute. Inflorescences axillary or extra-axillary scorpioid racemes; peduncle branched or not. Pedicel 5-10 mm. Calyx cup-shaped, ca. 1 cm; lobes ovate-lanceolate, ca. 5 × 2 mm, pubescent and prickly as on stems. Corolla purplish or white, stellate, 1.6-3.5 cm; lobes ovate, 10 × 4-8 mm, sparsely hairy. Filaments ca. 1 mm, glabrous; anthers lanceolate, ca. 9 mm. Ovary puberulent. Style 1-1.2 cm. Fruiting pedicel 1-1.5 cm, stout. Fruiting calyx enlarged, longer than fruit, densely prickly and enveloping most berry, ultimately flaring wide and exposing it. Berry bright red, subglobose, 1-2 cm in diameter. Seeds reniform, ca. 2.5 × 2 mm.

Distribution

Solanum sisymbriifolium is native to dry regions of South America, from Ecuador to Argentina. It has been introduced and can be found naturalized across Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, North America and the Caribbean (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020; ISSG, 2020; PBI Solanum Project, 2020; POWO, 2020; USDA-NRCS, 2020).  

Distribution Map

This content is currently unavailable.

Distribution Table

This content is currently unavailable.

History of Introduction and Spread

In Belgium, S. sisymbriifolium was first recorded in 1880 and currently, it is listed as a rare and ephemeral alien usually found on disturbed sites and road verges (Verloove, 2006).
In South Africa, S. sisymbriifolium was first recorded in 1908. It is thought that this species was introduced unintentionally with imported horse fodder. It has become a noxious weed with the potential to smother native vegetation. Currently, it is declared a Category 1 alien invader plant and it may not be planted, propagated, imported, or sold in the country (Hill, 1994; Byrne et al., 2002; Henderson, 2011).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Natural Dispersal

Solanum sisymbriifolium spreads by seeds and vegetatively by rhizomes. Fruits are consumed and dispersed by animals (e.g. birds and mammals).

Accidental Introduction

Seeds may be dispersed as a contaminant in fodder, mud and agricultural products (Byrne et al., 2002; ISSG, 2020; PBI Solanum Project, 2020). It is thought that S. sisymbriifolium was introduced unintentionally to South Africa with imported horse fodder (Byrne et al., 2002).

Pathway Causes

Pathway causeNotesLong distanceLocalReferences
Crop production (pathway cause)Cultivated as a trap cropYesYes
Disturbance (pathway cause)Common weed in wastelands and ruderal areas Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause)Escaped from cultivation Yes
Garden waste disposal (pathway cause)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes
Hitchhiker (pathway cause)Contaminant in fodderYesYes
Horticulture (pathway cause)Cultivated as an ornamentalYesYes
Industrial purposes (pathway cause)Fruits used for synthesis of corticosteroids and sex hormonesYesYes
Internet sales (pathway cause)Seeds for sale onlineYesYes 
Medicinal use (pathway cause)Leaves are used in traditional medicine Yes
Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Cultivated as an ornamentalYesYes
People foraging (pathway cause)The berry is considered edible and consumed by humans Yes

Pathway Vectors

Habitat

Solanum sisymbriifolium is usually found along roadsides, waste places, landfills, dump sites, pastures and verges near agricultural lands. In Australia, it can be found in shrubby eucalypt woodlands. It is sometimes planted as ornamental and medicinal plant in gardens and farms (Bean, 2012; ISSG, 2020; USDA-NRCS, 2020; Verloove, 2006).

Habitat List

CategorySub categoryHabitatPresenceStatus
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems)Present, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems)Present, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems)Present, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areasPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areasPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedRail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedRail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedRail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forestsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forestsPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forestsPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

Genetics

The haploid chromosome number reported for S. sisymbriifolium is n=12 (Moscone, 1992).

Reproductive Biology

All Solanum species have poricidally dehiscent anthers that make this genus an example of buzz pollination syndrome. Solanum flowers are mainly hermaphroditic, nectar is absent and pollen is the exclusive floral reward. Pollination in Solanum is performed by bees (de Luca and Vallejo-Marin, 2013).

Physiology and Phenology

In areas within and outside its native distribution range, S. sisymbriifolium produces flowers and fruits throughout the year (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020; PBI Solanum Project, 2020).

Longevity

Solanum sisymbriifolium grows as an annual in temperate and subtropical regions and as a perennial in tropical climates (Bean, 2012; ISSG, 2020).

Environmental Requirements

Solanum sisymbriifolium is able to grow in a wide range of climates, soil types and pHs, but it prefers moist, sandy soils. It grows best in areas with full sunlight but can tolerate shaded conditions (ISSG, 2020).

Climate

Climate typeDescriptionPreferred or toleratedRemarks
Af - Tropical rainforest climate> 60mm precipitation per monthPreferred 
Am - Tropical monsoon climateTropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))Preferred 
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer< 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])Preferred 
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate< 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])Preferred 
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summerWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summersTolerated 
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winterWarm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)Tolerated 
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all yearWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all yearTolerated 

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude lower (m)Altitude upper (m)
5535  

Rainfall Regime

Summer
Winter
Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

Soil texture > light
Soil texture > medium
Soil texture > heavy
Soil texture
Soil reaction > acid
Soil reaction > neutral
Soil reaction > alkaline

List of Pests

This content is currently unavailable.

Notes on Natural Enemies

Solanum sisymbriifolium can be attacked by the nematode species Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida (Timmermans et al., 2007a, b).

Natural enemies

Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Globodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode)Pathogen
Other/All Stages
    
Globodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)Pathogen
Other/All Stages
    

Impact Summary

CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenityPositive and negative
Economic/livelihoodPositive and negative
Environment (generally)Positive and negative
Human healthPositive and negative

Impact: Environmental

Solanum sisymbriifolium behaves as a weed within and outside its native distribution range. It can be a serious weed of pastures and ruderal areas where it grows forming dense spiny thickets that smother native vegetation. It reduces biodiversity in natural forests because it dominates large areas in the understory affecting the germination and establishment of native species. Currently, it is listed as a noxious invasive weed in Australia, South Africa, USA, Cuba, Hungary, Italy, Spain, China and Japan (Mito and Uesugi, 2004; DiTomaso and Healy, 2007; Weber et al., 2008; Campos and Herrera, 2009; Celesti-Grapow et al., 2009; Henderson, 2011; Oviedo Prieto and González-Oliva, 2015; Randall, 2017; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020; ISSG, 2020; USDA-NRCS, 2020).

Impact: Social

The seeds are poisonous to humans (PBI Solanum Project, 2020).

Risk and Impact Factors

Invasiveness

Proved invasive outside its native range
Has a broad native range
Abundant in its native range
Highly adaptable to different environments
Is a habitat generalist
Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
Pioneering in disturbed areas
Tolerant of shade
Highly mobile locally
Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
Long lived
Fast growing
Has high reproductive potential
Gregarious
Reproduces asexually

Impact outcomes

Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
Modification of successional patterns
Monoculture formation
Reduced amenity values
Reduced native biodiversity
Threat to/ loss of native species

Impact mechanisms

Competition - monopolizing resources
Competition - smothering
Poisoning
Rapid growth
Rooting
Produces spines, thorns or burrs

Likelihood of entry/control

Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
Difficult/costly to control

Uses

Economic Value

Solanum sisymbriifolium is used as a trap crop for potato cyst nematodes (PCN) such as Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida that cause massive damage to potato crops in Europe and other countries (Timmermans et al., 2007a, b). The plants induce eggs of PCN to hatch but the standing crop is destroyed before the nematode is able to complete its life cycle. Using S. sisymbriifolium in potato fields helps prevent the potato crop from being infested with PCN and has been shown to reduce populations of PCN by 50-80% (Timmermans et al., 2007a, b; Dandurand and Knudsen, 2016; ISSG, 2020).
The fruits of S. sisymbriifolium are also used as a source of solasodine, a glycoalkaloid used in the synthesis of corticosteroids and sex hormones and a large component of oral contraceptives (Hill and Hulley, 1995).

Social Benefit

Solanum sisymbriifolium is cultivated as an ornamental and the leaves are used in traditional medicine. The berry is edible and consumed by humans in South America, however, the seeds are poisonous (ISSG, 2020; PBI Solanum Project, 2020).

Uses List

Environmental > Amenity
Environmental > Biological control
Medicinal, pharmaceutical > Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
Medicinal, pharmaceutical > Traditional/folklore
Human food and beverage > Fruits
Ornamental > garden plant

Prevention and Control

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

Solanum sisymbriifolium is an aggressive weed that has become invasive in many countries. Therefore, its introduction as a trap crop or cultivated plant into a new region should be considered thoroughly before implementation (ISSG, 2020).

Physical/mechanical control

Small infestations of S. sisymbriifolium can be removed using specialized machinery. However, mechanical control is difficult due to the ability of this species to coppice after cutting and to reproduce prolifically by seed and rhizomes (Byrne et al., 2002; ISSG, 2020).

Biological control

Biological agents for the control of S. sisymbriifolium include the leaf-feeding tortoise beetle Gratiana spadicea and the flower-feeding weevil Anthonomus sisymbrii. The beetle G. spadicea was released in South Africa in 1994 and this insect failed to establish at some sites and, where establishment was confirmed, its impact has been variable (Byrne et al., 2002). The species A. sisymbrii has been considered for introduction in South Africa as well (Olckers et al., 2002; ISSG, 2020)

Links to Websites

NameURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

References

Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies.Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Bean AR, 2012. Solanum species of eastern and northern Australia. Version 6. Delta intkey. https://www.delta-intkey.com/solanum/www/sisymbri.htm
Bohs L, 2005. Major clades in Solanum based in ndhF sequences. In: A festschrift for William G. D’Arcy: the legacy of a taxonomist. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, Vol. 104, [ed. by Keating RC, Hollowell VC, Croat TB]. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 27-49.
Brundu, G., Camarda, I., Satta, V., 2003. A methodological approach for mapping alien plants in Sardinia (Italy). In: Plant invasions: ecological threats and management solutions, [ed. by Child, L., Brock, J. H., Brundu, G., Prach, K., Pysĕk, K., Wade, P. M., Williamson, M.]. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers. 41-62.
Byrne, M. J., Currin, S., Hill, M. P., 2002. The influence of climate on the establishment and success of the biocontrol agent Gratiana spadicea, released on Solanum sisymbriifolium in South Africa.Biological Control, 24(2) 128-134.
Campos, JA, Herrera, M, 2009. Análisis de la flora alóctona de Bizkaia, País Vasco (España). LAZAROA, 307-33.
Celesti-Grapow, L., Alessandrini, A., Arrigoni, P. V., Banfi, E., Bernardo, L., Bovio, M., Brundu, G., Cagiotti, M. R., Camarda, I., Carli, E., Conti, F., Fascetti, S., Galasso, G., Gubellini, L., Valva, V. la, Lucchese, F., Marchiori, S., Mazzola, P., Peccenini, S., Poldini, L., Pretto, F., Prosser, F., Siniscalco, C., Villani, M. C., Viegi, L., Wilhalm, T. (et al), 2009. Inventory of the non-native flora of Italy.Plant Biosystems, 143(2) 386-430.
Dandurand, L. M., Knudsen, G. R., 2016. Effect of the trap crop Solanum sisymbriifolium and two biocontrol fungi on reproduction of the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida.Annals of Applied Biology, 169(2) 180-189.
DiTomaso, J. M., Healy, E. A., 2007. Weeds of California and other Western States. Vol 1. In: Weeds of California and other Western States. Vol 1. California, USA: UC Davis. 1808 pp.
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
Henderson L, 2011. Invasive berry-producing Solanaceae. In: SAPIA News No. 20. Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas. 1-5. http://www.midlandsconservancies.org.za/documents/problemplants/sapia/0_SAPIA_NEWS_No._20.pdf
Hill MP, 1994. Evaluation of Gratiana spadicea (Klug, 1829) and Metriona elatior (Klug, 1829) (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) for the biological control of sticky nightshade Solanum sisymbriifolium Lamarck (Solanaceae) in South Africa (Doctoral dissertation). Makhanda, South Africa: Rhodes University.
Hill, M. P., Hulley, P. E., 1995. Host-range extension by native parasitoids to weed biocontrol agents introduced to South Africa.Biological Control, 5(2) 297-302.
ISSG, 2020. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/
Kil, J. H., Shim, K. C., Park, S. H., Koh, K. S., Suh, M. H., Ku, Y. B., Suh, S. U., Oh, H. K., Kong, H. Y., 2004. Distributions of naturalized alien plants in South Korea.Weed Technology, 18Suppl.1493-1495.
Luca, P. A. de, Vallejo-Marín, M., 2013. What's the 'buzz' about? The ecology and evolutionary significance of buzz-pollination.Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 16(4) 429-435.
Macdonald, I. A. W., Reaser, J. K., Bright, C., Neville, L. E., Howard, G. W., Murphy, S. J., Preston, G., 2003. Invasive alien species in Southern Africa: national reports and directory of resources, [ed. by Macdonald, I. A. W., Reaser, J. K., Bright, C., Neville, L. E., Howard, G. W., Murphy, S. J., Preston, G.]. Cape Town, South Africa: Global Invasive Species Programme. 125 pp. http://www.gisp.org
Mito, T, Uesugi, T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and new regulations for prevention of their adverse effects. In: Global Environmental Research, 8(2) 171-191.
Moscone, E. A., 1992. Meiotic chromosome studies in Solanaceae from Argentina. (Estudios de cromosomas meioticos en Solanaceae de Argentina.) Darwiniana, 31(1-4) 261-297.
Olckers, T., Medal, J. C., Gandolfo, D. E., 2002. Insect herbivores associated with species of Solanum (Solanaceae) in Northeastern Argentina and Southeastern Paraguay, with reference to biological control of weeds in South Africa and the United States of America.Florida Entomologist, 85(1) 254-260.
Olmstead RG, Sweere JA, Spangler RE, Bohs L, Palmer JD, 1999. Phylogeny and provisional classification of the Solanaceae based on chloroplast DNA. In: Solanaceae IV: advances in biology and utilization, [ed. by Nee M, Symon DE, Lester RN, Jessop JP]. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 111-137.
Olmstead, R. G., Palmer, J. D., 1992. A chloroplast DNA phylogeny of the Solanaceae: subfamilial relationships and character evolution.Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 79(2) 346-360.
Olmstead, R. G., Sweere, J. A., 1994. Combining data in phylogenetic systematics: an empirical approach using three molecular data sets in the Solanaceae.Systematic Biology, 43(4) 467-481.
Oviedo Prieto, R., González-Oliva, L., 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba., 9Special Issue No. 21-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf
PBI Solanum Project, 2020. Solanaceae Source: A global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family. Planetary Biodiversity Inventories (PBI). http://www.solanaceaesource.org/
POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org
Randall, R. P., 2017. A global compendium of weeds, Ed.3 [ed. by Randall, R. P.]. Perth, Australia: R. P. Randall. iii + 3653 pp.
Stevens, P. F., 2020. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/
Timmermans, B. G. H., Vos, J., Nieuwburg, J. van, Stomph, T. J., Putten, P. E. L. van der, Molendijk, P. G., 2007. Field performance of Solanum sisymbriifolium, a trap crop for potato cyst nematodes. I. Dry matter accumulation in relation to sowing time, location, season and plant density.Annals of Applied Biology, 150(1) 89-97.
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Published online: 25 June 2020

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Julissa Rojas-Sandoval

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