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22 April 2014

Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)

Datasheet Types: Pest, Invasive species, Host plant


This datasheet on Galinsoga parviflora covers Identity, Overview, Distribution, Dispersal, Hosts/Species Affected, Diagnosis, Biology & Ecology, Environmental Requirements, Natural Enemies, Impacts, Uses, Prevention/Control, Further Information.


Preferred Scientific Name
Galinsoga parviflora Cav.
Preferred Common Name
gallant soldier
Other Scientific Names
Adventina parviflora (Cav.) Raf.
Baziasa microglossa Steud.
Galinsoga hirsuta Baker
Galinsoga laciniata Retz.
Galinsoga quinqueradiata Ruiz & Pav.
Sabazia microglossa DC.
Stemmatella sodiroi Hieron.
Vigolina acmella (Roth) Poir.
Wiborgia acmella Roth
Wiborgia parviflora (Cav.) Kunth
International Common Names
French soldier
Peruvian daisy
small-flower galinsoga
boton de oro (Dominican Republic)
escabiosa (Chile)
soldado galante
Galinsoga à petites fleurs
piquant blanc
niu xi ju
Local Common Names
albahaca silvestre
Botón de oro
picao bravo
small flower galinsoga
chick weed
potato weed
yellow weed
botao de ouro
picao branco
small-flowered galinsoga
yellow galinsoga
Dominican Republic
yerba boba
Franzosenkraut (Kleinblütiges)
kleinblütiges Franzosenkraut
kleinblütiges Knopfkraut
herbe aiguiles
balakatjioet losih
rosilla chica
South Africa
quick weed
littleflower quickweed
canilla de blanca
kew weed
EPPO code
GASPA (Galinsoga parviflora)


Growth habit.
Growth habit.
©Sheldon Navie
Growth habit.
Growth habit.
©Sheldon Navie
Flowers and leaves.
Flowers and leaves.
©Sheldon Navie
Leaves simple-opposite, lower leaves with petioles, upper ones without. Leaf blade oval to oblong with sharp apex. Composite flowers 5-8 mm across, borne on long acillary peduncles. Each capitulum bears two types of flower: ligulate female white flowers at the margin and tubular hermaphrodite yellow flowers in the central disc.
G. parviflora plants
Leaves simple-opposite, lower leaves with petioles, upper ones without. Leaf blade oval to oblong with sharp apex. Composite flowers 5-8 mm across, borne on long acillary peduncles. Each capitulum bears two types of flower: ligulate female white flowers at the margin and tubular hermaphrodite yellow flowers in the central disc.
Eduardo Leguizamon
Young seedling.
Young seedling.
©Sheldon Navie

Summary of Invasiveness

G. parviflora is a cosmopolitan fast-growing annual herb with the capacity to invade agricultural and other disturbed areas in most temperate and subtropical regions of the world (Holm et al., 1979). It is highly competitive and can spread quickly, often being the dominant species in a field. G. parviflora generates considerable economic impact on crop systems, greenhouses, gardens and nurseries. It is listed as an invasive and noxious weed in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia, and on islands in the Pacific Ocean (see Distribution Table for details). 

Taxonomic Tree

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Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

The genus Galinsoga is named after M. M. Galinsoga, Head of Madrid Botanical Garden in 1880. The name Galinsoga parviflora is derived from the Latin parvu (little) and flore (flower). A revision of the genus Galinsoga (Compositae: Helianthae) was made by Canne (1977).

Although most authorities treat the closely related G. ciliata as a separate species, these two species are almost certain sometimes to be confused in the weed science literature. This account deals primarily with G. parviflora in the stricter sense, but some records or observations may relate more correctly to G. ciliata. See Similarities to Other Species for their distinguishing features.

Plant Type

Seed propagated


G. parviflora is herbaceous, erect and 20-80 cm tall, depending on growing conditions. Leaves are simple-opposite, the lower leaves with petioles, the upper ones without petioles. Leaf blade oval to oblong with sharp apex. The inflorescence consists of typical Compositae/Asteraceae composite flowers, each 5-8 mm across, borne on long acillary peduncles. Each 'flower'/capitulum bears two types of flower: ligulate female white flowers at the margin and tubular hermaphrodite yellow flowers in the central disc (Kissmann and Groth, 1993). Two types of achenes are present: peripheral (1.5-2 x 0.4-0.7 mm) and central (1.1-1.5 x 0.4-0.5 mm). Both types are black. The dispersal units are achenes bearing pappus or parts of flower structures (involucral bractea and the two paleas) that can easily be transported by wind or animals.


G. parviflora is an American weed, and its centre of origin is considered to be the mountainous area of Mesoamerica (i.e., Mexico and Central America; Vibrans, 2009). Because this species was first described from material collected in South America (a cultivated plant from Peru), it has been erroneously cited as native to this part of the world (Vibrans, 2009). Currently, G. parviflora is a cosmopolitan species widely distributed in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australasia. It is considered a weed in at least 40 countries, mostly temperate and sub-tropical but also at higher altitudes in many tropical countries (Holm et al., 1979). 

Distribution Map

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Distribution Table

This content is currently unavailable.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

G. parviflora spreads by seeds. Seed viability is usually high (90%). One plant can set as many as 30,000 seeds (achenes), but it is common to find 5000-10,000 seeds/plant (Kissmann and Groth, 1993). Seed output and dry-matter yield increases with population density, although seed output is reduced at very high densities (Rai and Tripathi, 1983). Achenes can be dispersed by wind, animals, or water. They can also be dispersed by human activities, such as movement of soil or plants. In Finland, the most effective means of dispersal is believed to be seedlings inadvertently grown in nurseries or commercial greenhouses.

Pathway Causes

Pathway causeNotesLong distanceLocalReferences
Crop production (pathway cause)Agricultural weedYesYes
Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause) YesYes
Horticulture (pathway cause)Weed in gardens and yardsYesYes
Medicinal use (pathway cause)Used in traditional African medicineYesYes
Nursery trade (pathway cause)Weed in nurseriesYesYes
Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Contaminant in common ornamental plantsYesYes

Pathway Vectors

Plant Trade

Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
True seeds (inc. grain)
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

HostFamilyHost statusReferences
Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeMain 
Allium sativum (garlic)LiliaceaeMain 
Apium graveolens (celery)ApiaceaeMain 
Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain 
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern)LiliaceaeMain 
Avena sativa (oats)PoaceaeMain 
Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet)ChenopodiaceaeMain 
Brassica carinata (African cabbage)BrassicaceaeMain 
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower)BrassicaceaeMain 
Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)BrassicaceaeMain 
Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera (turnip rape)BrassicaceaeMain 
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain 
Chrysanthemum (daisy)AsteraceaeMain 
Chrysanthemum vestitumAsteraceaeMain 
Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeMain 
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeMain 
Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeMain 
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeMain 
Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation)CaryophyllaceaeMain 
Echinochloa frumentacea (Japanese millet)PoaceaeMain 
Eleusine coracana (finger millet)PoaceaeMain 
Fabaceae (leguminous plants)FabaceaeMain 
Gerbera (Barbeton daisy)AsteraceaeMain 
Gladiolus hybrids (sword lily)IridaceaeMain 
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain 
Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeMain 
Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeMain 
Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeMain 
Impatiens (balsam)BalsaminaceaeMain 
Inula helenium (Elecampane)AsteraceaeMain 
Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeMain 
Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris (lentil)FabaceaeMain 
Limonium sinuatum (sea pink)PlumbaginaceaeMain 
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeMain 
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain 
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain 
Phacelia tanacetifolia (California bluebell)HydrophyllaceaeMain 
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain 
Pinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)PinaceaeMain 
Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeMain 
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain 
Rosa (roses)RosaceaeMain 
Rubus idaeus (raspberry)RosaceaeUnknown
Sambucus nigra (elder)CaprifoliaceaeMain 
Secale cereale (rye)PoaceaeMain 
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain 
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain 
Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)PoaceaeMain 
Spinacia oleracea (spinach)ChenopodiaceaeMain 
Triticum (wheat)PoaceaeMain 
Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeMain
Vicia faba (faba bean)FabaceaeMain 
Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeMain 
Vitis (grape)VitaceaeUnknown
Zantedeschia (calla-lilies)AraceaeMain 
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Seedling stage
Vegetative growing stage

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

G. parviflora is commonly confused with G. ciliata. The latter differs in being much more hairy, with many glandular hairs 0.5 mm or longer on the peduncles, whereas G. parviflora has only few, less than 0.5 mm long. Also G. ciliata has aristate (long-pointed) pappus-scales on the seeds; those of G. parviflora are not long pointed. G. ciliata may also be more shade-tolerant than G. parviflora (Rai and Tripathi, 1986b).

Habitat List

CategorySub categoryHabitatPresenceStatus
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production)Present, no further details 
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchardsPresent, no further details 
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchardsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems)Present, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedRail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forestsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanksPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalWetlandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalDesertsPresent, no further details 
Littoral Coastal areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology


The chromosome number reported for G. parviflora is 2n=16 (Canne, 1983).

Physiology and Phenology

G. parviflora exhibits an early summer flush characterized by high peaks (Toit and Cout-de-Billot, 1991). Germination was observed from late March until early November, during which 3-4 generations took place. One plant produced 13,400 capitula in its lifetime and produced 400,000 seeds. Stem height and leaf area increased more in summer-germinating plants than plants germinating in the spring or autumn, growth rate of G. parviflora being dependent on season of germination.
Germination of exposed seeds is highest in the first year, suggesting that many seeds either germinate or die before the second year. Within two years all exposed seeds are dead. Laboratory tests confirm that exposed seeds lose viability more rapidly than buried seeds, and that the deeper the seeds are buried, the better they retain viability (Schwerzel et al., 1979).


G. parviflora is an annual weed with a short life cycle, often less than 40 days, which can occur in the autumn, spring or summer in temperate areas and at any time of year in the tropics.

Population Size and Structure

Galinsoga parviflora exhibits density-dependent mortality, which increases at a higher nitrogen level. At lower densities the plant grows more vigorously in a mixture than compared to pure stands, but at higher densities it was completely suppressed by G. quadriradiata (Rai and Tripathi, 1986).


Shoot extracts of G .parviflora increased soil pH and reduced aluminium down to a depth of 20 cm when applied to the soil surface as a lime top dressing and leached with 3 pore volumes of deionised water (Meda et al., 2002).

Environmental Requirements

Sun species, among them G. parviflora, were more competitive with shade species at high light intensities, whereas at low light, the competitive ability depended on the initial weight of the plant (Corre, 1984). Rai and Tripathi (1986) showed that G. parviflora was very sensitive to shading.
G. parviflora is a C3 plant (Kissmann and Groth, 1993). High temperature seems to enhance growth, flowering and maturity. It is inferred that Galinsoga belongs to a type of weed of which the seed is light sensitive (Usami, 1976). Rate of germination is stimulated by alternating temperatures, with the highest rate at a day temperature of 30°C and a night temperature of 20°C, with a 16-hour photoperiod and 11,000 lux. The germination of irradiated seeds in the laboratory decreases as the red:far-red light ratio decreases in the range from 2 to 0.04 (Zweep et al., 1990).

Air Temperature

ParameterLower limit (°C)Upper limit (°C)
Absolute minimum temperature1 
Mean annual temperature140
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month3040
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month210


ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration  number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall5001500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime


Soil Tolerances

Soil texture > medium
Soil texture > heavy
Soil reaction > acid
Soil drainage > seasonally waterlogged
Special soil tolerances > shallow

List of Pests

This content is currently unavailable.

Notes on Natural Enemies

Many of the natural enemies mentioned here are polyphagous species. Batra (1979) comments that host-specific natural enemies should be sought in the area of origin of the weed in the mountainous regions of Latin America.

Fungi: G. parviflora is a host to Plasmopara yunnannensis (Tao and Qin, 1987) and seeds have been found bearing more than 15 fungal species (among them Alternaria, Ascochyta, Penicillum, Phoma, Drechslera, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Botrytis sp.) (Lorenzi, 1986; Prete et al., 1986). Ten fungal species were identified infecting G. ciliata and G. parviflora, the most notable being Glomerella cingulata, the causal agent of anthracnose in G. parviflora (Gasich, 1997).

Viruses: Tomato spotted mosaic wilt virus on G. parviflora plants growing in nearby fields of vegetable crops has been reported in Belgium (Gofflot and Verhoyen, 1990) and Argentina (Gracia and Feldman, 1989). Cucumber mosaic virus was isolated in G. parviflora plants near a celery and lettuce field in the USA (Bruckart and Lorbeer, 1976). G. parviflora was reported as a new host of Turnip mosaic virus in Zimbabwe. Myzus persicae, Brevicoryne brassicae and Aphis fabae transmitted the virus from infected to healthy cabbage plants (Chivasa et al., 2002). Tomato spotted wilt virus infection was detected in the Czech Republic where the main vector Frankliniella occidentalis was also present (Mertelik and Mokra, 1998). A virus disease of sunflower caused by Sunflower mosaic virus had a very narrow host range, infecting only one weed host, G parviflora (Nagaraju et al., 1997).

Mites: several mite species have been found on G. parviflora in the USA (Batra, 1979).

Insects: Agrotis ipsilon, a serious pest of maize, sorghum, soybean, cabbage and rape crops in Brazil, develops its first-instar larvae in G. parviflora plants (Link and Severo-Pedrolo, 1987). Other noctuids, such as Heliothis, Plutella and Pieris spp., feed on G. parviflora (Rai and Tripathi, 1985). Thrips tabaci, the vector of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus, is usually found in G. parviflora plants in tobacco fields of Poland (Wegorek and Lipa, 1979). The host plant for the larvae of Dioxyna bidentis or Paroxyna bidentis is G. parviflora in southern Norway (Greve, 2001). G. parviflora was reported as a supplementary or alternative food for Arion lusitianicus (Kozlowski and Kozlowska, 2000).

In an extensive survey in the USA, 122 insect species were found on G. parviflora plants, among them 22 crop pests, including three virus vectors (Batra, 1979). Orthezia insignis, a serious eucalyptus pest in India, may be found feeding on G. parviflora (Srikanth et al., 1988).

Nematodes: species of the genus Meloidogyne (arenaria, thamesi, hapla, javanica and schachtii) and Globodera rostochiensis, that produce serious root damage in Hungary, Brazil (Lordello et al., 1988) and the Philippines (Zorrilla and Davide, 1983), have been found in G. parviflora.

Bacteria: results indicated that G. parviflora can maintain Ralstonia solanacearum (race 3 biovar ) in the absence of potato as a source of infection in the following years (Barchend and Schmidt, 2002).

Parasitized aphids were observed on G. parviflora in Chile (Russo et al., 2000).

Natural enemies

Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Galinsoga mosaic virusPathogen     

Impact Summary

Animal/plant collectionsPositive
Animal/plant productsNegative
Biodiversity (generally)Positive
Crop productionNegative
Environment (generally)Positive
Fisheries / aquacultureNegative
Forestry productionNegative
Human healthPositive
Livestock productionNegative
Native faunaNegative
Native floraNegative
Rare/protected speciesNegative
Trade/international relationsNegative

Impact: Economic

Kranz et al. (1982) found that the critical periods of weed competition for beans were at initial crop development and flowering/pod formation. Leaf development, plant height, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, seed production and harvest index were all reduced by weed competition; seed production was reduced by 51%. Other than G. parviflora, other weeds present were Cyperus rotundusBidens pilosa and Brachiaria plantaginea.

In a maize crop, in which the weed flora was dominated by G. parviflora (80% of the total weed dry matter), weed competition reduced growth, yield and harvest index of the maize crop (Hegewald, 1982). Grassy weeds including G. parviflora offered maximum competition to a maize crop reducing grain yield by 77.4%, followed by non-grassy weeds (44.2%) and sedges (38.4%) (Pandey et al., 2002).

Wheat crops with no weed control over the whole growing season gave significant lower yields than wheat crops with weed control from 13-55 days after sowing. G. parviflora populations ranged from 241-1907 plants/m². These weed populations reduced the number of ears of wheat/m², but showed little effect on grain weight or number (Thomas et al., 1978).

Competition for more than 30 days by G. parviflora, at a density of 241 plants/m² and Chenopodium album at 5 plants/m², significantly reduced wheat grain yields in a season where a frost occurred (Thomas and Schwerzel, 1979).

A 70% cover of G. parviflora and Amaranthus hybridus caused reduction in grain and shoot dry-matter yields of Eragrostis tef and wheat, which in turn promoted weed growth. The losses in E. tef could be partially recovered with nitrogen fertilizer (Pulschen, 1992).

Risk and Impact Factors


Invasive in its native range
Proved invasive outside its native range
Highly adaptable to different environments
Highly mobile locally
Has high reproductive potential
Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year

Impact outcomes

Altered trophic level
Damaged ecosystem services
Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
Modification of nutrient regime
Monoculture formation
Negatively impacts agriculture
Negatively impacts animal health
Reduced native biodiversity
Threat to/ loss of native species

Impact mechanisms

Competition - monopolizing resources
Competition - smothering
Pest and disease transmission
Rapid growth

Likelihood of entry/control

Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
Difficult/costly to control


In areas of Latin America (Mexico, Colombia), young stems and leaves are eaten raw or cooked. The same is reported in Tanzania, where G. parviflora exists in abundance and it is consumed as a leafy vegetable. Plants can be dried, ground into a powder, and then used as a flavouring in soups. In Africa, the species is also reported to be used as a medicine for treating nettle stings by rubbing it on the skin. In Uganda, it is reported as a traditional herbal drug used for treating bleeding (Damalas, 2008). 

Uses List

Medicinal, pharmaceutical > Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
Medicinal, pharmaceutical > Traditional/folklore
Human food and beverage > Emergency (famine) food
Human food and beverage > Flour/starch
Human food and beverage > Food additive
Human food and beverage > Spices and culinary herbs
Human food and beverage > Vegetable

Prevention and Control

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Cultural Control

The critical period of competition between lettuce and G . parviflora, Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus hybridu s and Raphanus raphanistrum, depends on transplanting date. For maximum crop production the crop must be kept weed free only during the first week after transplanting. If the lettuce crop is transplanted later the weed-free period must be extended to 2 weeks ( García Blanco, 1983 ).

Increasing Stevia rebaudiana cv. BPP72 density, plus 0.08 mm black polyethylene sheeting as mulch, achieved significant reductions in G. parviflora populations ( Baltazar et al., 1980 ).

Solarization with 0.11 mm transparent polyethylene sheeting is effective in reducing viability of G. parviflora seed; microwaves have been found to affect G. parviflora seed viability ( Barker and Craker, 1991 ). It is possible that higher temperatures under the sheeting (41.5°C) as opposed to the control (35.2°C) caused lethal injuries in embryo tissues of the seed.

Mechanical control with pre-emergence harrowing achieves a degree of control in maize, peas, beans and other row crops.

Host-Plant Resistance

Among a total of seven varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris studied, differences were observed in ability to compete against G. parviflora ( Senesac et al., 1979 ).

Biological Control

Vulgamycin, produced by a new strain of Streptomyces sp., demonstrates some control of G. parviflora ( Babczinski et al., 1991 ). Although no pre-emergence applications of vulgamycin showed any control of G. parviflora, post-emergence applications resulted in good control of several weeds, including G. parviflora . Cotton, barley and maize showed 10% damage, whereas sunflowers demonstrated no tolerance to the compound.

Chemical Control

Chemical control may be achieved with isoproturon, bromoxynil, 2,4-D, MCPA and dicamba in winter and spring cereals.

Rimsulfuron, a sulfonylurea herbicide, gives adequate control of G. parviflora in maize and potatoes, as do atrazine and related herbicides in sorghum.

Urea derivatives are applied to cotton, celery, onion and carrot crops. Metribuzin has been successfully tested in tomatoes.

Imazaquin, fomesafen and acifluorfen are used for G. parviflora control in soybeans.
Desmetryn, nitrofen and chloroxuron are used for G. parviflora control in cabbage.

In flower crops (chrysanthemum, gerbera, gladiolus, freesia and carnation), oxadiazon and napropamide are used.

Chemical control of G. parviflora in orchards may be achieved with terbacil, simazine and diuron.

Prolonged herbicide application using metamitron resulted in development of resistance in G. parviflora ( Schmidt, 1986 ).

Links to Websites

GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS) source for updated system data added to species habitat list.


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