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12 March 2014

Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)

Datasheet Types: Crop, Tree, Invasive species, Host plant

Abstract

This datasheet on Lagerstroemia indica covers Identity, Overview, Distribution, Dispersal, Biology & Ecology, Environmental Requirements, Natural Enemies, Impacts, Uses, Further Information.

Identity

Preferred Scientific Name
Lagerstroemia indica L.
Preferred Common Name
Indian crape myrtle
Other Scientific Names
Lagerstroemia chinensis Lam.
Lagerstroemia elegans Wall.ex Paxton
Lagerstroemia indica fo. latifolia Koehne
Lagerstroemia indica var. alba Ram. Goyena
Lagerstroemia minor Retz.
Lagerstroemia pulchra Salisb.
Murtughas indica (L.) Kuntze
Velega globosa Gaertn.
International Common Names
English
crape myrtle
crepeflower
Pride of India
Queen crape myrtle
Queen of flowers
Queen of shrubs
Queen's flower
Spanish
árbol de Júpiter
crespón
crespon rosado
espumillas
Júpiter
lila de les Indias
lila del sur
French
lilas d'été
Chinese
zi wei
Portuguese
escumilha
Local Common Names
Cuba
astronomía
cupido
gastronomia
gastronomia y júpiter
Júpito
Dominican Republic
almira
armira
astromelia
astromeria
Germany
Indische
Lagerströmie
Haiti
astromelia stragornia
stragornia
stragornia blanc
India
ajhar
arjuna
bondaro
challa
chinagoranta
dhayti
jarul
motobhandaru
pavalakkurinji
varagogu
Indonesia
bungur
ketangi
Italy
lagerstremia
Jamaica
June rose
Lesser Antilles
crepe myrtle
Malaysia
bongor biru
Philippines
banaba
Portugal
escumilha
Puerto Rico
astromelia
astromero
Thailand
chuangmuu
tabaek dam
EPPO code
LAEIN (Lagerstroemia indica)

Pictures

Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); ornamental tree showing habit. Green Cay Wetlands, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September, 2009.
Habit
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); ornamental tree showing habit. Green Cay Wetlands, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September, 2009.
©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 3.0
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); young tree trunk. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.
Young tree trunk
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); young tree trunk. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.
©Forest & Kim Starr-2007- CC BY 3.0
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); mature tree, showing habit. Tifton, Georgia, USA.
Mature tree
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); mature tree, showing habit. Tifton, Georgia, USA.
©Joseph LaForest/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); flowers and foliage. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.
Flowers and foliage
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); flowers and foliage. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.
©Forest & Kim Starr-2010 - CC BY 3.0
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.
Flowers
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.
©Forest & Kim Starr-2010 - CC BY 3.0
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); close-up of a flower. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.
Close-up of a flower
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle); close-up of a flower. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August, 2010.
©Forest & Kim Starr-2010 - CC BY 3.0

Summary of Invasiveness

L. indica is a widely commercialised ornamental shrub or small tree that has become naturalized and invasive in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Randall, 2012, USDA-ARS, 2014). L. indica is often used for buffer strips around parking lots, for median strip plantings along highways, and also planted near decks, patios, as shade trees in small parking lots, and around homes (Moore and Walker, 2014). It has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized in waste ground, disturbed sites, open grasslands, and along roadsides in a great variety of climates (Orwa et al., 2009). L. indica has a very aggressive and dense root system and is listed as invasive in South Africa, Belize, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Balick et al., 2000; Foxcroft et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012).  

Taxonomic Tree

This content is currently unavailable.

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

The Lythraceae is a moderate-sized family that includes 31 genera and approximately 600 species occurring worldwide (Graham et al., 2005; Stevens, 2012). Members of this family are easily recognized by a suite of characters such as: (1) opposite entire leaves, (2) a persistent, perigynous, campanulate to tubular floral tube with crinkled petals inserted at the rim, (3) two whorls of stamens inserted deep in the tube, and (4) a many-seeded capsular fruit (Graham et al., 2005). The four largest genera are Cuphea (250 species), Nesaea (80 species), Diplusodon (75 species), and Lagerstroemia (55 species) and account for three-quarters of all the species in this family (Graham et al., 2005; Graham and Cavalcanti, 2009). The species L. indica is frequently used as an ornamental and consequently many cultivars have been developed by private individuals, nurseries, and public institutions (Orwa et al., 2009; Moore and Walker, 2014).

Plant Type

Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Shrub
Woody

Description

Shrubs or small trees, to 7 m tall. Branchlets slender, 4-angled or subulate, puberulous, glabrescent. Leaves sessile or with petiole to approximately 2 mm; leaf blade elliptic, oblong, obovate, or suborbicular, typically at least some suborbicular to obovate and mucronate, 2.5 – 7 × 1.5 – 4 cm, papery to slightly leathery, glabrous or with slight indumentum on veins abaxially, lateral veins 3-7 pairs, base broadly cuneate to rounded, apex acute, obtuse with small mucro, or retuse. Panicles sub-pyramidal, 7 – 20 cm, puberulous, densely flowered. Floral tube 6-merous, 7–11 mm, smooth walled or obscurely to decidedly 6-ribbed, glabrous; sepals 3.5 – 5.5 mm, adaxially glabrous; annulus present; epicalyx absent. Petals purple, fuchsia, pink, or white, orbicular, 1.2-2 cm including claw 6-9 mm. Stamens 36 – 42, dimorphic. Ovary glabrous. Capsules ellipsoidal, 1–1.3 × 0.7–1.2 cm, 4–6 valved. Seeds including wing approximately 8 mm (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).

Distribution

L. indica is native to temperate and tropical Asia (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). It has been widely cultivated as an ornamental and has become naturalized in Europe, America, and the Caribbean.

Distribution Map

This content is currently unavailable.

Distribution Table

This content is currently unavailable.

History of Introduction and Spread

L. indica started to be used in landscaping and gardening in Europe and America in 1759 (Sanchez, 2003). In the USA, the National Arboretum in Washington D.C. began a breeding project with L. indica in 1962. Major advances occurred when L. subcostata and L. fauriei were introduced into the breeding program in 1966. The resulting hybrids were highly ornamental and resistant to powdery mildew. At the present, the U.S. National Arboretum has released over 24 cultivars selected for cold hardiness, for resistance to powdery mildew, and for varying heights, habits, flower colours, autumn foliage colours, and bark characteristics (Moore and Walker, 2014).
In the Caribbean, L. indica was first reported in 1881 for the island of Puerto Rico (Bello Espinosa, 1881). By 1920, L. indica was listed for the Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Virgin Islands, St Kitts, Antigua, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Bonaire, Curacao, and Aruba (Urban, 1920).

Risk of Introduction

The risk of introduction of L. indica is very high. This species is one of the most common ornamentals commercialized in the nursery and landscaping trade around the world. Many cultivars resistant to drought, freezing conditions, and pests have been developed by private individuals, nurseries, and public institutions (Orwa et al., 2009; Moore and Walker, 2014). Thus, the likelihood of colonizing new habitats remains high.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

L. indica spreads by seeds and cuttings. Cuttings easily produce roots. Seeds are winged and thus wind-dispersed (Orwa et al., 2009; Moore and Walker, 2014).

Pathway Causes

Pathway causeNotesLong distanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause)Widely cultivated as ornamentalYesYes
Garden waste disposal (pathway cause)Widely cultivated as ornamentalYesYes
Habitat restoration and improvement (pathway cause)Dense and widespread root systemYesYes
Hedges and windbreaks (pathway cause)Planted for boundary and barrier supportYesYes
Landscape improvement (pathway cause)Widely cultivated as ornamentalYesYes
Nursery trade (pathway cause)Widely cultivated as ornamentalYesYes
Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) YesYes

Pathway Vectors

Pathway vectorNotesLong distanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activities (pathway vector)Widely cultivated as ornamentalYesYes
Mail (pathway vector)Seedlings and seeds sold online (http://www.floridata.com)YesYes 
Wind (pathway vector)Seeds are wind-dispersedYesYes

Habitat

L. indica is commonly planted in gardens, yards, public parks, buffer strips around parking lots, and along highways (Moore and Walker, 2014). Once naturalized, it can be found growing in waste places, grasslands, on cliffs, along rivers, in disturbed or secondary forest, and along forest edges in wet and dry habitats from low to medium altitudes (Orwa et al., 2009; PROTA, 2014).

Habitat List

CategorySub categoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial    
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areasPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areasPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedRail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedRail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forestsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forestsPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forestsPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanksPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanksPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanksPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublandsPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublandsPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

Genetics

The chromosome number recorded for L. indica varies from 2n = 48 to 2n = 50 (Chen et al., 2003). L. indica can hybridize with L. speciosa and at least 10 different cultivars have resulted from hybridization between these two species (Pounders et al., 2007). 

Reproductive Biology

L. indica produces hermaphroditic flowers in large, axillary or terminal panicles. Flowers are pollinated mainly by large bees (Orwa et al., 2009). 

Physiology and Phenology

L. indica is a deciduous species which sheds leaves in the dry season. Flowering is frequent from June to September, although within its native distribution range flowers and fruits may be found throughout the year (Orwa et al., 2009; Moore and Walker, 2014). 

Environmental Requirements

L. indica is adapted to a wide variety of climatic and soil conditions. It grows best at low to medium elevations in areas with warm temperatures (mean = 25-30°C). Once established, plants are extremely drought tolerant and have low fertility requirements, although they respond to fertilizer and water with lush growth. L. indica has low salt tolerance and is also partially resistant to fire (Orwa et al., 2009; Moore and Walker, 2014).

Climate

Climate typeDescriptionPreferred or toleratedRemarks
Af - Tropical rainforest climate> 60mm precipitation per monthPreferred 
Am - Tropical monsoon climateTropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))Preferred 
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer< 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])Preferred 
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate< 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])Preferred 
BS - Steppe climate> 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitationTolerated 

Air Temperature

ParameterLower limit (°C)Upper limit (°C)
Mean annual temperature528

Rainfall

ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration  number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall12002400mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

Soil texture > light
Soil texture > medium
Soil reaction > acid
Soil drainage > free

List of Pests

This content is currently unavailable.

Notes on Natural Enemies

A wide variety of pests and diseases have been recorded in L. indica when grown as an ornamental. These include: 
Adoretus versutus (rose beetle)
Anoplophora chinensis (black and white citrus longhorn)
Armillaria tabescens (armillaria root rot)
Ceroplastes ceriferus (Indian wax scale)
Ceroplastes floridensis (soft scale)
Chaetocnema basalis
Chaetocnema indica
Cryphonectria cubensis (Eucalyptus canker)
Dialeurodes citri (citrus whitefly)
Erysiphe australiana
Fomitiporia mediterranea (esca disease)
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug)
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (black tea thrips)
Homalodisca vitripennis (glassy winged sharpshooter)
Monellia caryella (hickory, aphid, little)
Paratrichodorus porosus
Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug)
Phyllophaga (white grubs)
Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle)
Pteroma plagiophleps
Retithrips syriacus (black vine thrips)
Rotylenchulus reniformis (reniform nematode)
Sarucallis kahawaluokalani
Selenaspidus articulatus (West Indian red scale)

Natural enemies

Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Erysiphe australianaPathogen
All Stages
not specific  N
Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle)Herbivore
All Stages
not specific  N
Sarucallis kahawaluokalaniHerbivore
All Stages
to genus  N

Impact Summary

CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihoodPositive and negative
Environment (generally)Positive and negative

Impact: Environmental

L. indica is a deciduous species widely commercial as an ornamental that has become naturalized and invasive in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Randall, 2012, USDA-ARS, 2014). It has a very aggressive and dense root system with the potential to outcompete native species for water and nutrients. Many cultivars resistant to drought, fire, and cold conditions have been created, increasing the potential of this species to colonize new habitats, displacing and smothering native vegetation (Balick et al., 2000; Foxcroft et al., 2007; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012).  

Risk and Impact Factors

Invasiveness

Proved invasive outside its native range
Has a broad native range
Abundant in its native range
Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
Highly mobile locally
Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
Long lived
Fast growing

Impact outcomes

Reduced native biodiversity
Threat to/ loss of native species

Impact mechanisms

Competition - shading
Competition - smothering
Hybridization
Rapid growth
Rooting

Likelihood of entry/control

Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

L. indica is widely commercialized as an ornamental shrub or tree. In the USA, it is one of the most common plants in gardens, yards, public parks, buffer strips around parking lots, and along highways (Moore and Walker, 2014). Due to its dense and wide spreading root system, L. indica is also used in erosion control. It is often planted as a boundary or barrier support plant in gardens and cultivated areas (Orwa et al., 2009).

Uses List

Environmental > Agroforestry
Environmental > Amenity
Environmental > Boundary, barrier or support
Environmental > Erosion control or dune stabilization
Environmental > Land reclamation
Ornamental > Potted plant
Ornamental > Seed trade

Links to Websites

NameURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Kew Neotropikey: Lythraceaehttp://www.kew.org/science/tropamerica/neotropikey/families/Lythraceae.htm 
World Agroforestry Centrehttp://www.worldagroforestry.org 

References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Adams CD, 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies.
Balick MJ, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize, with common names and uses. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85.
Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.
Berendsohn WG, Gruber AK, Monterrosa JA, 2009. [English title not available]. (Nova Silva Cuscatlanica. Árboles nativos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae. Familias A a L.) Englera, 29(1):1-438.
Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html
Chen R, Song W, Li Xl, Li M, Liang Gl, Chen C, 2003. Chromosome Atlas of Major Economic Plants Genome in China, Vol. 3. Chromosome Atlas of Garden Flowering Plants in China. Beijing, China: Science Press.
DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do
Davidse G, Sousa MS, Knapp S, Chiang FC, 2009. Cucurbitaceae a Polemoniaceae. Flora Mesoamericana, 4(1):1-855.
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
Foxcroft LC, Richardson DM, Wilson JRU, 2007. Ornamental plants as invasive aliens: problems and solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Environmental Management, 41(1):32-51.
Graham SA, Cavalcanti TB, 2009. Neotropical Lythraceae. Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics [ed. by Milliken, W. \Klitgard, B. \Baracat, A.]. http://www.kew.org/science/tropamerica/neotropikey/families/Lythraceae.htm
Graham SA, Hall J, Sytsma K, Shi SuHua, 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of the Lythraceae based on four gene regions and morphology. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 166(6):995-1017. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/IJPS/journal/
Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela (New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, 860 pp.
Idárraga-Piedrahita A, Ortiz RDC, Callejas Posada R, Merello M, 2011. Flora of Antioquia. (Flora de Antioquia.) Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia:939 pp.
Jørgensen PM, León-Yànez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard, 75. i-viii, 1-1182.
Moore LM, Walker FD, 2014. Plant Guide: Crape myrtle Lagerstromia indica., USA: USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_lain.pdf
Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/
Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.
Pauwels L, 2005. Cultivated and/or Exotic Plants in Central Africa (provisional list of R. Congo - Rwanda - Burundi). http://users.chello.be/cr28796/CultAfrC.htm
Pounders C, Rinehart T, Sakhanokho H, 2007. Evaluation of interspecific hybrids between Lagerstroemia indica and L. speciosa. HortScience, 42(6):1317-1322. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/
PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp
Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf
Sanchez M, 2003. Ficha Tecnica Lagerstroemia indica (árbol de Júpiter) ([English title not available]). Madrid, Spain: Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid. http://www.rjb.csic.es/jardinbotanico/ficheros/documentos/pdf/pubinv/MSG/Lagerstroemia_indica.pdf
Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/
Urban I, 1920. Symbolae Antillanae,seu, Fundamenta florae Indiae Occidentalis, Volume 8.
USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

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