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27 June 2014

Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)

Datasheet Types: Crop, Invasive species, Host plant

Abstract

This datasheet on Passiflora edulis covers Identity, Overview, Associated Diseases, Pests or Pathogens, Distribution, Dispersal, Hosts/Species Affected, Diagnosis, Biology & Ecology, Environmental Requirements, Natural Enemies, Impacts, Uses, Prevention/Control, Management, Genetics and Breeding, Food Quality, Food Safety, Economics, Further Information.

Identity

Preferred Scientific Name
Passiflora edulis Sims
Preferred Common Name
passionfruit
Other Scientific Names
Passiflora diaden Vell.
Passiflora edulis f. edulis
Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener
Passiflora gratissima A. St.-Hil.
Passiflora incarnata L.
Passiflora iodocarpa Barb. Rodr.
Passiflora middletoniana J. Paxton
Passiflora pallidiflora Bertol.
Passiflora picroderma Barb. Rodr.
Passiflora pomifera M. Roem.
Passiflora rigidula J. Jacq.
Passiflora rubricaulis Jacq.
Passiflora vernicosa Barb. Rodr.
International Common Names
English
black passion fruit
passion fruit
purple granadilla
purple passion fruit
sour passion fruit
yellow passion fruit
Spanish
ceibey
curuba redonda
granadilla
granadilla china
granadilla morada
maracuya
maracuyá
maracuyá púrpura
pachis
parcha
parcha de monte
parcha morada
French
fruit de la passion
gouzou
grenadille
la grenadille
maracudja
pomme-liane violette
pomme-lianes
Chinese
ji dan guo
Portuguese
maracujá comúm
maracujá de comer
maracujá de doce
maracujá de ponche
maracujá mirim
maracujá pequeno
maracujá peroba
maracujá Redondo
maracujá-do-mato
maracujá-mochila
Local Common Names
Brazil
maracuja-do-campo
Colombia
cocorilla
Dominican Republic
chinola
parchita
Germany
Granadilla, Purpur-
Maracuja
Passionsblume, Essbare
Passionsfrucht
Haiti
grenadia
Indonesia
buah negeri
konyal
pasi
Italy
granadiglia
passiflora
Jamaica
mountain sweet cup
Malaysia
buah susu
markisa
Philippines
pasionaria
Thailand
linmangkon
USA/Hawaii
lilikoi
United States Virgin Islands
water lemon fruit
Vietnam
chùm bap
EPPO code
PAQED (Passiflora edulis)
EPPO code
PAQEF (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa)

Pictures

Passiflora edulis (passionfruit); invasive habit. East Usambaras, Tanzania. April, 2015.
Invasive habit
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit); invasive habit. East Usambaras, Tanzania. April, 2015.
©Arne Witt/CABI-2015
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit); fruits and foliage.
Fruits
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit); fruits and foliage.
©CABI/Arne Witt
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit); opening flower.
Flower
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit); opening flower.
©CABI/Arne Witt
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit); developing fruit. July, 2014.
Fruit
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit); developing fruit. July, 2014.
©CABI/Arne Witt
P. edulis: 1, flowering branch; 2, branch with fruit; 3, halved fruit.Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
Line drawing of plant
P. edulis: 1, flowering branch; 2, branch with fruit; 3, halved fruit.Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
PROSEA Foundation
Image (paq_ed2.JPG) is missing or otherwise invalid.
Flower
Open flower of passionfruit (P. edulis). Note leaves and tendrils.
©AgrEvo
Image (paq_ed3.JPG) is missing or otherwise invalid.
Trellised plants
Trellised plants of passionfruit (P. edulis). Note ripening fruits.
©AgrEvo
Image (paq_ed4.JPG) is missing or otherwise invalid.
Fruits
Ripening passionfruits (P. edulis).
©AgrEvo
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit); leaves. Uganda, north of Mount Elgon. July, 2014.
Leaves
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit); leaves. Uganda, north of Mount Elgon. July, 2014.
©Arne Witt/CABI-2015
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit); flower. Uganda, north of Mount Elgon. July, 2014.
Flower
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit); flower. Uganda, north of Mount Elgon. July, 2014.
©Arne Witt/CABI-2014
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit); ripening fruit. Uganda, north of Mount Elgon. July, 2014.
Fruit
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit); ripening fruit. Uganda, north of Mount Elgon. July, 2014.
©Arne Witt/CABI-2014

Overview

Of the several passion fruit (Passiflora) species bearing edible fruits, only the purple passion fruit (P. edulis f. edulis), the yellow passion fruit (P. edulis f. flavicarpa) and hybrids between them are considered to be of value in international commerce. P. edulis is native to South America but is now widely cultivated in tropical Africa, South-East Asia, North America and the Caribbean, as well as some subtropical regions (Australia, New Zealand). Plants of P. edulis are herbaceous vines reaching up to 2 m in length, climbing by means of axillary tendrils. Fruits are utilized fresh or, due to their unique and intense flavour, for juice. With its attractive flowers it is also grown as an ornamental. Plants are trained up trellises and usually crop for a maximum of 3 years in Brazil. They usually grow for 1-2 years, depending on the incidence of diseases. Fruit yields of yellow passion fruit are commonly 20-30 t/ha, but can reach over 60 t/ha, while purple passion fruit is less productive (up to 25 t/ha).

Summary of Invasiveness

P. edulis is less frequently regarded as a serious invasive when compared with the related species P.mollissima or P. foetida. However it has the ability to spread and dominate large areas in tropical and subtropical mesic to wet environments – especially areas in disturbed forest and scrub, including forests edges, gaps and riparian zones. The species may be allelopathic and as a climbing spreading vine it can become dominant in both the canopy and understory, where its weighty vines can weigh down and shade co-occurring trees, shrubs and herbs. P. edulis is listed as invasive in the Galapagos, Hawaii, Raoul and other tropical oceanic islands. It is naturalized and spreading but usually regarded as a minor weed in most areas where it is introduced e.g. Australia and Africa. As with many weedy crop species its invasiveness may be under-reported because of its useful qualities.

Taxonomic Tree

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Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Passifloraceae is a family of angiosperms including 27 genera and about 975 species distributed mainly in America, but also in warm Africa (Stevens, 2012). The genus Passiflora includes more than 500 species, most of them native to tropical America.
Two forms of P. edulis are distinguished in the literature:
(1) P. edulis f. edulis; the purple passion-fruit (purple granadilla) with deep purple fruits 4-5 cm in diameter, with green tendrils and leaves. This is the most common form, and is considered by some to have the best flavour, though the desirability of the form’s fruit was debated in the original species description (Sims, 1818). It may be a mutated form of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (Bernacci et al., 2008).
(2) P. edulis f. flavicarpa; the yellow passion-fruit with canary-yellow fruits 6-12 x 4-7 cm and reddish-purple tinged tendrils and leaves; larger, more showy flowers with deeper purple corona and more vigorous growth.
However, it is possible that the differences between recognized forms reflect earlier author’s attempts to describe the wide genetic variability within the species rather than persistent regionally or ecologically distinguishable forms (Bernacci et al., 2008). For example a variety of intermediate fruit colours are known in the field. Bernacci et al. (2008) claim that most of the varieties or forms identified in the literature represent extremes in variation within a single species with a few representing cultivars, and that all these should fall under the single name Passiflora edulis Sims. For example, it is widely accepted that the purple-fruited varieties are more cold tolerant, and they are believed to flower earlier in the morning (Mabberley, 1997). Probably the observed differences are the result of mutations fixed via selective breeding. Unfortunately studies on the genetic variation present in the species are often restricted to a few cultivars and do not sample across wild populations (Ortiz et al., 2012); in general, however, the purple vs yellow fruit distinction seems meaningless genetically (Santos et al., 2011).
In most countries where the species is grown as a crop, it is the yellow cultivars that are commonly grown, such as 'Waimanalo Selection', 'Yee Selection' and 'Noel's Special' (Hawaii) and 'Mirim' or 'Hawaiiana' (South America). Purple passion-fruit dominates in southern and eastern Africa and in New Zealand ('Bali Hai'); in Australia cultivars are planted which are hybrids of the two forms: 'E 23', 'Purple Gold', 'Lacey' and 'Black Beauty'.
A recent treatment of the genus using modern phylogenetic methods puts P. edulis in a large clade of 60 taxa with a 2n = 18 chromosome number (Hansen et al., 2006; Muschner et al., 2012).

Plant Type

Herbaceous
Vine / climber
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Description

P. edulis is an herbaceous vine, attaining 0.5-2 m in length and climbing by means of axillary tendrils. Stems slender, angular, striate, glabrous or puberulent. Leaves alternate, in the form of a horseshoe or a ‘v’, with three main veins, coriaceous, with two divergent lobes, forming an angle of 45-93° between them, the lobes oblanceolate, oblong, or linear, 2.2-6.5 × 0.4-1.4 cm, with rounded or acuminate apices, the base cuneate or rounded, the margin undulate, revolute; upper surface puberulent; lower surface glabrous, with prominent venation; petioles 3-5 mm long, canaliculate, without glands; stipules filiform, approximately 4 mm long; tendrils simple, filamentous. Flowers axillary, in pairs; the bracts subulate, not forming an involucre; peduncle ca. 10 mm long, articulated near the apex. Sepals oblong, green, 4-6 mm long; petals pale green, oblong, as long as the sepals; corona of two series of filiform filaments, pale green, as long as the sepals; gynophore approximately 2 mm long, tubular; stamens 5; ovary claviform, the styles recurved, the stigmas capitate. Fruit a fleshy berry, ovoid or globose, 1-1.4 cm long, almost black, dull. Seeds numerous, elliptical, approximately 2.3 mm long, with transverse striae (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Distribution

P. edulis is native to South America, from Brazil through Paraguay and northern Argentina. It is generally not reported as native to northern South America, though in some accounts it is listed as native in Venezuela and Colombia (Cervi, 1997). It is widely cultivated in tropical Africa, South-East Asia and tropical America and the Caribbean (Francis, 2000; PROTA, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). 

Distribution Map

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Distribution Table

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History of Introduction and Spread

It appears that P. edulis was initially introduced to Australia and Hawaii in the early 1800s. The type specimen was purple fruited, described in 1818 from the collection of exotic plants grown in Bayswater, London, UK in the Comtesse de Vandes’ collection, and sourced from seeds from Portugal, and presumably sourced directly from Brazil – and as noted is easily grown from seeds and cuttings (Sims, 1818). It is widely naturalized via escape from cultivation throughout its introduced range in tropical and subtropical Asia, Africa, the Pacific (Martin and Nakasone, 1970).

It seems likely that most introductions outside of South America occurred in the late 1800s or later. In Australia, it was flourishing and partially naturalized in coastal areas of Queensland before 1900 and in New Zealand in the 1930s (Morton, 1987). Commercial plantations of P. edulis were established in Kenya in 1933 and were expanded in 1960, when the crop was also introduced into Uganda for commercial production. In South Africa, by 1947 the production of P. edulis was 2000 tons for domestic consumption.

In Kruger National Park (South Africa), where this species is listed as invasive, it was first collected in 1988 (Foxcroft et al., 2007). From Brazil, P. edulis was introduced into Jamaica in 1913, Puerto Rico in 1925 and Venezuela in 1954 (Morton, 1987; US National Herbarium). 

Risk of Introduction

This plant will continue spreading into new locations, initially because of its desirable qualities as a food and ornamental plant. The fruit will be transported for consumption (this could create an opportunity for accidental spread) and the seeds for planting. The plant can also be propagated readily from cuttings. Once a plant is established in a location, livestock, tortoises, monkeys, primates and birds can eat the fruit and potentially will spread the seeds, which remain viable after ingestion in many cases. Also, within areas where it is grown, dumping of garden waste could lead to accidental introduction to new sites.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

The seeds are dispersed by people (intentionally and as garden or cooking waste), other primates and monkeys, cattle, tortoises, and birds (though fresh or recently mature fruit may be difficult for small birds to open) (Renteria et al., 2006; Rentería and Buddenhagen, 2006; Blake et al., 2012; Lusweti et al., 2012). In Hawaii, it is dispersed mainly by feral pigs 

Pathway Causes

Pathway Vectors

Pathway vectorNotesLong distanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activities (pathway vector) YesYes
Host and vector organisms (pathway vector)Seeds can be dispersed by birds, pigs, rats, and humansYesYes
Livestock (pathway vector)SeedsYesYes

Hosts/Species Affected

The weediness and impacts of P. edulis are features of its fast growth and climbing and smothering habit and dispersal ability, although long distance dispersal may be rare. It may by virtue of proximity affect any plant upon which it grows, climbing upwards in the canopy supported by twining vines with tendrils that grasp nearby supporting vegetation or other items that provide structural support. In forested situations this might mean growth into the canopy. This may actually be a requirement for its reproduction, since fruit are unlikely to be produced in full shade. So far, concerns about the invasiveness of this species are generally in the context of it being a weed of forests, forest gaps and forest margins – especially in sites with high biodiversity value (Holt, 1992; West, 2002). For example the rare Scalesia pedunculata forests in the Galapagos islands are severely infested and of high value (Rentería and Buddenhagen, 2006). Its productivity in cultivation may be indicative of its capacity for spread, with 15-20 tons per hectare per year being possible (Bautista and Salas, 1995).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

A number of Passiflora species are generally similar; close similarities are discussed in Bernacci et al. (2008) and a useful key for distinguishing a large number of species in the genus is given in the Flora of China (Yinzheng et al., 2007). The key to the different taxonomic sections or series of Passiflora shows that P. edulis is from section Passiflora, making it broadly similar to the other members of the section e.g.; P. incarnata, P. cincinnata,P. filamentosa, P. recurva, and P. trintae (Cervi, 1997). However, the phylogenetic relationships place it within a large clade of 60 species (Muschner et al., 2012).

Habitat

P. edulis grows in tropical and subtropical mesic to wet environments – especially forests and scrub, forest edges, forest gaps and riparian areas in forests. It probably benefits from supporting woody vegetation or uneven terrain, since its tendrils and vining or scrambling habit allow it to grow up and over its surroundings to capture resources.

Habitat List

CategorySub categoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial    
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areasPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedRail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedRail / roadsidesPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forestsPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forestsPrincipal habitatNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslandsSecondary/tolerated habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslandsSecondary/tolerated habitatNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanksPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanksPrincipal habitatNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublandsPresent, no further detailsNatural
Littoral Coastal areasPrincipal habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
Littoral Coastal areasPrincipal habitatNatural

Biology and Ecology

Genetics

The chromosome number reported for P. edulis is 2n =18 (Melo et al., 2001; Hansen et al., 2006). The genetic diversity of the group has been investigated and shows no useful distinction between the varieties based on fruit colour (Santos et al., 2011).

Reproductive Biology

Flowers open shortly after sunrise and remain open until mid-morning the next day, but the stigma is receptive only on the first day. The purple passion-fruit is self-compatible, setting well if selfed, but the yellow passion-fruit often requires cross-pollination (Bruckner et al., 1993). Bumblebees (Xylocopa spp.; Bombus spp. and others) are the main bees that pollinate the flowers of the passion fruit; when and where they are not sufficiently active, hand pollination can be practised where the plant is cultivated. Flower buds emerge sequentially on the new shoots. They take 40-46 days to anthesis; the purple fruit matures 60-90 days later, the yellow fruit after 60-70 days.

Physiology and phenology

In Puerto Rico, P. edulis has been recorded flowering from April to October and fruiting from June to December (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). In China, it flowers in June and fruits in November.

Growth and Development

As in many vines, light is the essential factor for flowering and in passion-fruit this is particularly true for floral development and fruit set. That is why training and pruning are important to ensure adequate exposure of the shoots when grown as a crop. In a monsoon climate most flowers are produced on the flush occurring at the end of the rainy season. Depending on the climate there may be one to three harvest peaks (purple passion-fruit) or a single, often very long harvest season (more common with the yellow passion-fruit).
Seeds lose their viability within a few weeks. Germination takes 2-4 weeks; the seedlings grow slowly and require 3-4 months to reach the transplanting height of 20-25 cm. Within 5-7 weeks after transplanting, each plant will have up to four healthy laterals. From then on the vine grows very rapidly; the first flowers are produced 5-7 months after transplanting when the vine can be 10-15 m long.

Environmental Requirements

The yellow passion-fruit grows best at altitudes of 0-800 m; the purple passion-fruit forms virtually no flowers below 1000 m and should be grown commercially at altitudes of 1200-2000 m.
The purple-flowered form tolerates light frosts and can be grown in the subtropics, as in Australia and New Zealand, while the yellow fruited variety is not, or is less tolerant of frost. Both crops grow on a wide range of soils; heavy clay soils have to be drained and very sandy ones need heavy manuring. A pH of 6-8 is preferred. In South-East Asia, it grown in areas with 2000-3000 mm annual rainfall, but the purple passion-fruit, especially, grows well on as little as 900 mm in Africa and Australia, provided the rainfall is well distributed.
The vines require sheltered locations without extreme temperatures: below 20°C pollen does not germinate and at 18-15°C both growth and flowering are set back, whereas temperatures above 30-32°C stimulate growth at the expense of flowering and fruit set. These critical temperatures were established for hybrid cultivars in Australia (Martin and Nakasone, 1970).

Climate

Climate typeDescriptionPreferred or toleratedRemarks
A - Tropical/Megathermal climateAverage temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annuallyPreferred 
Af - Tropical rainforest climate> 60mm precipitation per monthPreferred 
Am - Tropical monsoon climateTropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))Preferred 
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer< 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])Tolerated 
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate< 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])Tolerated 
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all yearWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all yearTolerated 
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summerWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summersTolerated 
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winterWarm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)Tolerated 

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude lower (m)Altitude upper (m)
3636  

Air Temperature

ParameterLower limit (°C)Upper limit (°C)
Mean annual temperature1532

Rainfall

ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration  number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall8003000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

Soil texture > light
Soil texture > medium
Soil reaction > neutral
Soil drainage > free
Special soil tolerances > shallow

Notes on Pests

Diseases

The most important disease worldwide is brown spot (Alternaria passiflorae) on leaves, vines and fruits. Xanthomonas campestris pv. passiflorae (bacterial spot) is another important disease. Phytophthora blight (Phytophthora nicotianae) causes the wilting of shoot tips and crown rot, particularly where water stagnates occasionally. Scab, caused by Cladosporium cladosporioides can cause significant yield losses and reduction in fruit quality. Septoria spot, caused by the fungus Septoria passiflorae, causes extensive spotting of leaves and fruits, and occasionally of the stem. Pruning to open up the canopy for fungicide penetration is essential. Yellow passion-fruit and its hybrids are more tolerant of these diseases.
Fusarium wilt is caused by the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. passiflorae; the shoots wilt, followed by a complete collapse of the plant. Grafting to wilt-resistant yellow passion-fruit rootstocks is the most practical way of control. Where damping-off, caused by Thanatephorus cucumeris and Pythium spp., is a problem in nurseries, soils should be sterilized.
A number of virus diseases have been reported, notably Passionfruit woodiness virus (PWV) and Passiflora latent virus (PLV). They are spread by aphids (Aphis gossypii, Myzus persicae) and pruning knives. Other virus diseases are passionfruit ringspot from Côte d'Ivoire, which is similar to PWV. The most practical control is to use clean planting material, clean pruning tools and resistant hybrids, or rootstocks of yellow passion-fruit.

Pests

Nematodes, especially the rootknot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria), are the most serious pests of P. edulis. Practical control measures are crop rotation and the use of tolerant rootstocks. The cocoa mirid Helopeltis clavifer, the passion vine bug Leptoglossus gonagra and the green vegetable bug Nezara viridula suck and pierce leaves and young fruits; these, together with the leaf-eating caterpillar Tiracola plagiata, are minor pests. Fruit flies that feed on passion-fruit include the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), the melon fly (B. cucurbitae), the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) and the Queensland fruit fly (B. tryoni). Pierced young fruit shrivels and falls; later injuries cause damage which lowers fruit grade. In order to safeguard fresh fruit export markets, spraying insecticides may be necessary if destruction of infested fruit and the use of baits do not adequately check the pest. Mealybugs (Planococcus citri) are usually controlled by their natural enemies (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri). The same applies to scales and mites (which do much damage incidentally), including the red scale Aonidiella aurantii, the soft brown scale Coccus hesperidum and the mite Brevipalpus phoenicis.

List of Pests

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Non-Infectious Disorders

Genetic disorders

Self-incompatibility occurs in yellow passionfruit cultivated via cuttings (Singh et al., 2006).

Physiological disorders

Postharvest punctures, scars, bruises and internal chilling injury (discoloration, pitting and high water loss) can occur if fruits are not handled correctly during and after harvest (Singh et al., 2006).

Non-infectious disease/Nutrient deficiencies

Passionfruit vines should be monitored for deficiencies, particularly potassium and calcium, and to a lesser extent, magnesium (Morton, 1987). In plants grown in solution, magnesium deficiency induced chlorotic mottling, premature shedding of older leaves, desiccation of tendrils, and accumulation of starch in the stem (Abanto and Muller, 1977). In the same study, calcium deficiency caused chlorosis of younger leaves, and necrosis of shoot and root apices as well as older tendrils.
Micropropagated P. edulis plantlets tend to show deficiency symptoms such as interveinal chlorosis, leaf bleaching and poor growth, when grown in MS media, and it is suggested that these plants require different mineral concentrations in the media to avoid signs of deficiency (Monteiro et al., 2000). 

Notes on Natural Enemies

Caterpillars of the Andean Silverspot (Dione glycera), the Juno Silverspot (Dione juno ), and the Gulf Fritillary (Agraulis vanillae)  have been recorded in Venezuela (2070-3170 m alt.) feeding on P. edulis and causing serious foliage damage; in some cases adults oviposited on the plant (Causton et al., 2000). Also in Venezuela at 1200–2680 m altitude adult beetles of Lactica brevicollis have been recorded to feed on foliage and flowers, and the larvae to feed on roots of P. edulis, but  neither the beetles nor the butterflies identified in the study were specialists on P. edulis (Causton et al., 2000). This study focused on identifying natural enemies of the more invasive Passiflora mollisima, and identified a number of other polyphagous insects that presumably feed on this focal species and some others but it was not clear if they feed on P. edulis (Causton et al., 2000).

Fruit fly larvae Dasiops gracilis are known from immature fruit in Venezuela and Dasiops inedulis and Dasiops curubae larvae feed on immature flowers in Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia and Venezuela (Aguiar-Menezes et al., 2004, Friesen et al., 2008). Spider mites Eutetranychus banksi and Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar, 1938) have been recorded on P. edulis, with the occurrence on the plants being the result of high infestation levels on preferred species nearby (Mendonça et al., 2011). Though the specific feeding preferences for these mites was not recorded (in the study cited here) they are known to feed on the upper surfaces of leaves of other plant species and at high densities on fruit (Mendonça et al., 2011).
Nematodes, especially the rootknot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria), are serious pests of P. edulis grown as a crop. Practical control measures are crop rotation and the use of tolerant rootstocks. The cocoa mirid Helopeltis clavifer, the passion vine bug Leptoglossus gonagra and the green vegetable bug Nezara viridula suck and pierce leaves and young fruits; these, together with the leaf-eating caterpillar Tiracola plagiata, are minor pests. Fruit flies that feed on passionfruit include the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), the melon fly (B. cucurbitae), the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) and the Queensland fruit fly (B. tryoni). Pierced young fruit shrivels and falls; later injuries cause damage which lowers the grade. 

Mealybugs (Planococcus citri) occurring as a crop pest are usually controlled by their natural enemies (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri). The same applies to scales and mites which incidentally do much damage: the red scale (Aonidiella aurantii) and soft brown scale (Coccus hesperidum), as well as the red spider mite (Brevipalpus papayensis) and the passion vine mite (Brevipalpus phoenicis).

Diseases

The most important disease worldwide is brown spot (Alternaria passiflorae) on leaves, vines and fruits. Phytophthora blight (Phytophthora nicotianae) causes the wilting of shoot tips and crown rot, particularly where water stagnates occasionally. Septoria spot, caused by the fungus Septoria passiflorae, causes extensive spotting of leaf and fruit, and occasionally of the stem (Inch, 1978). Fusarium wilt is caused by the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. passiflorae; the shoots wilt, followed by a complete collapse of the plant.

A number of viruses have been reported where P. edulis is grown as a crop, notably passion-fruit woodiness potyvirus (PWV) and passiflora latent carlavirus (PLV). They are spread by aphids (Aphis gossypii, Myzus persicae) and pruning knives. Other virus diseases are ring-spot from Côte d'Ivoire, which is similar to PWV.

A much longer list of actual and potential pests and diseases has been compiled for a quarantine pest risk assessment for plants imported from Chile (Firko and Podleckis, 1996). It is difficult to determine which pests and diseases in that report are significant for plants growing in the field.

Natural enemies

Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Alternaria passiflorae (brown spot of passionfruit)Pathogen
Leaves
Fruits/pods
not specific   
Dasiops curubaeHerbivore
Inflorescence
    
Dasiops gracilisHerbivore
Fruits/pods
    
Dasiops inedulisHerbivore
Inflorescence
    
Dione glyceraHerbivore
All Stages
    
Eutetranychus banksi (citrus mite, Texas)Herbivore
Leaves
Fruits/pods
not specific   
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Herbivore
Leaves
Fruits/pods
not specific   
Phytophthora nicotianae (black shank)Pathogen
Leaves
Fruits/pods
not specific   
Septoria passiflorae (leaf spot of passion fruit)Pathogen
Leaves
Fruits/pods
not specific   

Impact Summary

CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihoodPositive and negative
Environment (generally)Positive and negative
Human healthPositive and negative

Impact: Environmental

P. edulis has the ability to spread and become dominant in tropical and subtropical mesic to wet environments – especially forests, forest edges, forest gaps and riparian areas in dry and wet forests (Stone et al., 1992; Rentería and Buddenhagen, 2006; Wunderlin and Hansen, 2012). Apparently it produces allelopathic chemicals capable of suppressing growth of some neighbouring plants (Khanh et al., 2006). Even within its native range it is recognized as an occasionally problematic weed in the same way that morning glory Ipomea spp. can become problematic (Cervi, 1997).

In a farm setting P. edulis can produce between 2 and 50 tons of fruit per hectare in Brazil (10 tons being common) suggesting it can produce a lot of propagules in any given area (Kist et al., 1995; Damatto Jr. et al., 2005; Gonçalves and Souza, 2006). In Hawaii it grows along seasonally dry streams which can contain large quantities of fruit, such that in a heavy rain a wall of yellow fruit is brought down the stream as it first starts flowing (Chris Buddenhagen pers. comm.). Being a climbing spreading vine it can become locally dominant in both the canopy and understory, where its weighty vines can weigh down and shade co-occurring trees, shrubs and herbs. It is these characteristics that make managers of natural areas pay attention to this species, particular in high value natural areas managed for indigenous biodiversity values (Holt, 1992; West, 2002; Rentería and Buddenhagen, 2006).

Seedlings of P. edulis are quite shade tolerant, though fruiting requires full sun. From germination, plants able to produce fruit within 7-12 months. In Australia the plant has been found hundreds of kilometers from the nearest town – presumably dispersed by birds (Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013). It is regarded as problematic in the Galapagos, Raoul, a local problem on high value preserves in Hawaii, and is widely naturalized throughout its introduced range (Holt, 1992; West, 2002; Rentería and Buddenhagen, 2006). It is naturalized and invasive in New Zealand, Australia, South Africa, Puerto Rico and Florida (Henderson, 2001; Batianoff and Butler, 2002; Harris et al., 2007; Wunderlin and Hansen, 2012) as well as on many islands in the Pacific Ocean (PIER, 2014). 

Threatened Species

Threatened speciesWhere threatenedMechanismsReferencesNotes
Scalesia pedunculata
Ecuador
Competition - monopolizing resources
Competition - shading
Competition - smothering
Competition - strangling
 

Risk and Impact Factors

Invasiveness

Invasive in its native range
Proved invasive outside its native range
Has a broad native range
Highly adaptable to different environments
Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
Pioneering in disturbed areas
Tolerant of shade
Highly mobile locally
Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
Long lived
Fast growing
Has high reproductive potential
Reproduces asexually
Has high genetic variability

Impact outcomes

Damaged ecosystem services
Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
Modification of nutrient regime
Modification of successional patterns
Monoculture formation
Negatively impacts forestry
Reduced amenity values
Reduced native biodiversity
Threat to/ loss of endangered species
Threat to/ loss of native species

Impact mechanisms

Allelopathic
Competition - monopolizing resources
Competition - shading
Competition - smothering
Competition - strangling
Competition (unspecified)
Interaction with other invasive species
Rapid growth

Likelihood of entry/control

Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

P. edulis is grown as a crop to produce fruit and juices; thousands of tonnes per year are produced in South America, Asia, Australia and New Zealand. It is generally regarded that the yellow variety (more acidic) is more suited to juicing and the purple variety is better as a fruit (milder and floral scents), and that the yellow varieties are more resistant to disease. A frequent claim is that the purple varieties (or cultivars) are better suited to relatively cooler subtropical climates.
Passion-fruit juice has a unique and intense flavour and high acidity which makes it a natural concentrate. When sweetened and diluted it is very palatable and blends well with other fruit juices. Typical processed products include ice cream, sherbet, nectar, juices, concentrate, squash, jams and jellies.
Passion flowers are widely employed by herbalists and natural health practitioners around the world. The species is mostly employed as a sedative, hypnotic (inducing sleep), nervine, anti-spasmodic and pain reliever.
With its very attractive flowers, it is also desirable as an ornamental or garden plant for homes around the world with suitable climate.

Uses List

General > Botanical garden/zoo
General > Ornamental
Environmental > Agroforestry
Environmental > Amenity
Medicinal, pharmaceutical > Traditional/folklore
Human food and beverage > Beverage base
Human food and beverage > Fruits
Human food and beverage > Oil/fat
Human food and beverage > Spices and culinary herbs
Ornamental > Propagation material
Ornamental > Seed trade

Prevention and Control

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
P. edulis is regarded as a minor weed, or locally serious problem and a common garden escape with local impacts. In the Galapagos islands, 3% Roundup (glyphosate) and 3% Combo (picloram and triclopyr combined) have been used to control the plant (Renteria et al., 2006). More than 10,000 plants were removed on Raoul Island (one of the Kermadec Islands) using a mix of hand weeding and herbicidal treatment (West, 2002).

In high value preserves on Maui, Hawaii, a mix of hand weeding and herbicidal cut and stump painting using herbicides has been used on this species (Holt, 1992). It has not been considered for biocontrol (Froude, 2002) though a number of generalist pests are known from its native and introduced range (Inch, 1978; Firko and Podleckis, 1996). Grazing can prevent establishment and spread of this plant in some situations (Lusweti et al., 2012).

Agronomic Aspects

Propagation and Planting

Passionfruit is generally propagated from seed, although cuttings and grafting can be used. Seed viability declines rapidly after 2 months. Storage at a relative humidity of around 10% in sealed packages in air-conditioned rooms maintains a high germination rate (>70%) for up to 12 months. Seed should be rubbed clean of pulp and dried in the shade. Nowadays seedlings are often raised in polythene bags, 15 cm wide and 25 cm deep. Three seeds per bag are sown at a depth of 1 cm and thinned to leave one after two months. Cuttings are set in steam-sterilized coarse sand and later transplanted into bags or a nursery bed. In trials with purple passionfruit, terminal cuttings with 3-4 nodes and one or two leaves gave better rooting than other types of cuttings. Application of 3000 mg/litre indole butyric acid (the optimum rate) improved and speeded up rooting. Grafting is often used to control diseases. Yellow passionfruit is used as resistant rootstock although other Passiflora species, in particular P. caerulea L., show much greater resistance to Phytophthora root rot and Fusarium collar rot. Moreover, P. caerulea is tolerant of rootknot nematodes and to exposure to -1.5°C; it can be propagated from leaf and stem cuttings and is compatible with P. edulis. Wedge and whip grafts on seedling rootstocks - sometimes on rooted cuttings - are used. Micro-propagation using axillary buds gives good results. In most parts of South-East Asia passionfruit is a backyard crop and seeds are often sown at stake. Support is essential even under such conditions. Commercial plantations adopt a row spacing of 1.2-1.8 m and a within-row spacing of 3 m. This gives 1851-2777 plants/ha. Planting holes of 45 x 45 x 45 cm should be filled with topsoil mixed with up to 10 kg compost or manure and about 120 g double superphosphate where phosphorus is required. Transplanting is done at the start of the rainy season.

Husbandry

Early growth of passionfruit is slow and regular weeding is essential. Mulching along the rows or around the base of the plants greatly facilitates weed control and protects the roots. Being a short-term perennial, passionfruit is an ideal intercrop during the establishment period of crops such as oil palm and rubber. Elaborate trellises have been used in Australia and South Africa, but in East Africa, especially at closer spacing, a single wire trellis has been found to be as good. A 14-gauge galvanized wire is tightly stretched along the tops of hardwood posts 15 cm in diameter and 3 m long, dug in to a depth of 0.6 m; these posts are spaced 8 m apart. The trellis should be erected when the field is planted so that the main shoot and one vigorous lateral can be tied to the wire with a string. If laterals do not emerge in time, they can be forced to leaf out by pinching off the shoot tip. When the vines reach the wire they are trained in opposite directions along it. All laterals below the wire are pruned off. Laterals emerging along the wire are allowed to hang down freely; they are the secondary shoots branching into tertiary shoots. Secondary and higher-order shoots are the fruiting wood which has to be thinned and rejuvenated by pruning. Side dressing is practised with 50 kg N per ha 4 weeks after transplanting and every 12 months after that.

Harvesting

Fruit drops to the ground when fully mature. It is collected once or twice per week; at this stage it looks shrivelled and unattractive. For fresh fruit markets, especially the export market, fruit is picked after full colour development when the whole fruit is purple or canary yellow, but before shrivelling and drying set in.

Yield

A plantation is usually cropped for 3 years; of the total crop, roughly 50% is produced in the first year, 35% in the second, and 15% in the third year. The sharp decline in yield level, which is even more marked in areas with disease problems, is the main reason to replant fields after the second or third crop.

Average yields amount to 10-15 t/ha per year for the purple and 20-25 t/ha per year for the yellow passionfruit. Much higher yields are possible; yields as high as 50 t/ha per year for purple passionfruit have been reported from Kenya.

Handling after Harvest

Fruit for processing is delivered to the factory where the pulp is extracted and the juice is expelled by centrifugation. Passionfruit juice can be produced and bottled by small factories at village level. The aroma and flavour of the juice are sensitive to heat; preservation by freezing is therefore preferred. Where pasteurization by heat is necessary, it should be done by agitation in the can (spin pasteurization). Fresh fruit can be stored at 5-7°C, 85-90% RH, for 3 weeks; there is a weight loss of 32% when fruit is removed from such storage. In Kenya, standards have been laid down for fresh fruit for export, including a diameter size larger than 25 mm, and a smooth, clean, unblemished and fresh coloured skin. The fruit is packed in a single layer in rigid containers with ventilation slots. The containers are lined with tissue paper and on top of the fruit comes a layer of padding material to ensure a firm pack.

Cultivation

Planting stock production

Seedlings at the two- to four-leaf stage can be transplanted into individual plastic containers, grown in semi-shade for 1–2 months and then gradually provided with more sunlight. Seeds can also be sown in 60 cell trays and taken directly to the field. Seedlings are considered ready for field transplanting when they have attained heights of 25–50 cm and have been hardened in full sunlight for 1–2 months.
For vegetatively produced stock, cuttings are set in steam-sterilized coarse sand and later transplanted into bags or a nursery bed. In trials with purple passion-fruit, terminal cuttings with 3-4 nodes and one or two leaves gave better rooting than other types of cuttings. Application of 3000 mg/litre indole butyric acid (the optimum rate) improved and speeded up rooting. For grafted vines, the scion portion should have grown up to about 25 cm and hardened before transplanting.

Site preparation and planting

In most parts of South-East Asia passion-fruit is a backyard crop and seeds are often sown at stake. Support is essential even under such conditions. Commercial plantations adopt a row spacing of 1.2-1.8 m and a within-row spacing of 3 m. This gives 1851-2777 plants/ha. Planting holes of 45 x 45 x 45 cm should be filled with topsoil mixed with up to 10 kg compost or manure and about 120 g double superphosphate where phosphorus is required. The practice of applying fertilizer in the planting holes, however, varies widely, from no fertilizer to 1 kg of superphosphate in South Africa. In Hawaii and Australia, fertilizer (60–114 g of 10:5:20) and/or manure is incorporated in a circular area (approximately 0.8 m diameter) around each planting site. These conditions are not suitable for Brazil.
The trellis is the principal initial cost of production. There are a number of different trellis types, each having variations in height, number of strands and placement of wires, length of cross-arms (if arms are used), spacing of posts and method of construction. The two most commonly used types are the I or ‘vertical’ or ‘fence’ trellis, with one to several wires strung parallel, one below the other, on upright posts, and the ‘T’- or ‘cross’-type trellis, with three strands of wires, one running on top of the posts and the other two attached at the ends of each cross-arm. For yellow passion fruit, some authors recommend the fence-type trellis when manual pollination is performed since the other trellis types make this activity more difficult. In Hawaii, the cross-type trellis was found to give higher yields over the ‘fence’-type trellis. Trellis height is around 2.0 m. In East Africa, especially at closer spacing, a single wire trellis has been found to be as good as more elaborate designs. A 14-gauge galvanized wire is tightly stretched along the tops of hardwood posts 15 cm in diameter and 3 m long, dug in to a depth of 0.6 m; these posts are spaced 8 m apart.

Pruning and training

Trellises should be erected when the field is planted so that the main shoot and one vigorous lateral can be tied to the wire with a string. If laterals do not emerge in time, they can be forced to leaf out by pinching off the shoot tip. When the vines reach the wire they are trained in opposite directions along it. All laterals below the wire are pruned off. Laterals emerging along the wire are allowed to hang down freely; they are the secondary shoots branching into tertiary shoots. Secondary and higher-order shoots are the fruiting wood which has to be thinned and rejuvenated by pruning.
In general, light, selective pruning, particularly at the end of the annual production cycle, enhances new growth and maintains high yields the following year. This consists of removing all vines about to reach the ground or growing on the ground. Vines are cut near the trellis wires, but a few nodes away from the main stems. Vines hanging only halfway to the ground are left. Long vines should not be thrown over the trellis, as this only increases entanglement on the trellis and depresses yields. Some vine growth on top of the entangled tops of the trellis may be pruned, as fruit produced on these vines is apt to be lost in the maze of vines, especially when the planting is 2 or 3 years old. Pruned vines on the trellis should be left to dry in place, as attempts to remove the cut vines can damage uncut vines. Cross-arm trellises of 2.4–3.0 m high, although more costly initially, offer some advantages, such as better spread of vines and greater height for vines to grow and reach the ground. It is also easier to remove old vines hanging down from the wires.

Irrigation

Adequate soil moisture is required to sustain vegetative growth and production of passion fruit vines. No floral buds are initiated under dry conditions as vine extension and growth are curtailed. Production is generally associated with higher rainfall in the 2 months before flowering. In Australia, 300–400 litres water per vine are required per week during the summer. Passion fruit plants are herbaceous and thus need a good supply of water to develop and produce properly.

Fertilizers and manures

Recommendations for fertilization vary widely, with all directed at encouraging new growth throughout the season. Since all flowers occur on new growth, there is a high demand for nitrogen; leaf nitrogen levels above 4.5% are recommended. About 60% of passion fruit roots are in the upper 30 cm of soil, and almost 90% are between 0 and 45 cm from the base of the stem. In young orchards, fertilizers should be applied in a 20 cm-wide ring around and 10 cm from the trunk, gradually increasing this distance with the age of plants. In mature vines, fertilizer should be applied in a band 2 m long and 1 m wide, on both sides of the plants, and 20–30 cm from the trunk. The time of fertilizer application depends on climatic conditions, general vine appearance and vine performance.
Side dressing is practised with a high dose of 50 kg N per ha 4 weeks after transplanting and every 12 months after that.

Cultural requirements

Early growth of passion-fruit is slow and regular weeding is essential. Mulching along the rows or around the base of the plants greatly facilitates weed control and protects the roots. Being a short-term perennial, passion-fruit is an ideal intercrop during the establishment period of crops such as oil palm and rubber.
Principal sources: Paull and Duarte (2012)

Harvesting

Harvesting

Fruit drops to the ground when fully mature. It is collected once or twice per week; at this stage it looks shrivelled and unattractive. For fresh fruit markets, especially the export market, fruit is picked after full colour development when the whole fruit is purple or canary yellow, but before shrivelling and drying set in. However, harvesting fruit at one third colour development helps the fruit to survive transport.

Yield

A plantation is usually cropped for 3 years; of the total crop, roughly 50% is produced in the first year, 35% in the second, and 15% in the third year. The sharp decline in yield level, which is even more marked in areas with disease problems, is the main reason to replant fields after the second or third crop.
Passion fruit yields vary with climate, species, cultivation practices, trellis type, presence of disease and the abundance of appropriate pollinating agents. The yellow passion fruit has the highest annual yield potential, with reports of 44.8 t/ha in Hawaii and 41.8–61.9 t/ha in Sungai Baging, Malaysia. In commercial orchards, a more realistic annual yield is between 20 and 30 t/ ha. The purple passion fruit is less productive. Yields of 5-10 t/ha per year can be obtained in Australia, with the hybrids having yields of up to 25 t/ha.
Principal sources: Paull and Duarte (2012)

Postharvest Treatment

Purple passion fruit can be kept for up to 4-5 weeks with little weight loss at 5°C and 80-90% humidity. The yellow passion fruit can only be stored for about 1 week at 5-7.5°C. Ethylene can be used to enhance the skin-color development of mature fruit without affecting soluble solids or juice pH.
Fruit for processing is delivered to the factory where the pulp is extracted and the juice is expelled by centrifugation. Passion-fruit juice can be produced and bottled by small factories at village level. The aroma and flavour of the juice are sensitive to heat; preservation by freezing is therefore preferred. Where pasteurization by heat is necessary, it should be done by agitation in the can (spin pasteurization).
Principal sources: Paull and Duarte (2012)

Genetic Resources and Breeding

Large germplasm collections are kept in Queensland (Australia), Hawaii (USA) and Brazil. The major breeding objective is to incorporate resistance to nematodes, Fusarium wilt and viral diseases. Most of these traits come from the yellow passion-fruit; in Queensland the purple passion-fruit has been completely replaced by yellow/purple hybrids. P. caerulea, which is more tolerant of many pests, diseases and low temperatures, has not been utilized in any breeding programmes.

Major Cultivars

Many growers plant selected seeds or use purple passion fruit vines grafted onto Fusarium-resistant lines of the yellow passion fruit. The higher acidity of the yellow passion fruit, along with the need to develop disease-resistant cultivars, has led to the development of hybrids. The selection of hybrids between purple and yellow passion fruit has focused on winter and summer cropping and tolerance of passion fruit mosaic virus [Passionfruit woodiness virus], nematodes, Alternaria spot and Fusarium wilt. In Australia, two or three hybrids are grown to spread production peaks, with ‘E-23’ and ‘Purple Gold’ being most widely used. The hybrids ‘Supersweet,’ ‘Land 3’ and ‘Misty’ are used in the subtropical parts of Australia, while the purple-skinned selection of the yellow passion fruit ‘Panama’ is grown in tropical areas. The most recent release in Hawaii was ‘Noel’s Special,’ a yellow passion fruit with an unusually bright orange-coloured juice and tolerance of Alternaria brown spot. The round fruit averages 90 g in weight, yielding 43-56% juice by weight and with total soluble solids of 15-19.8%. Hybrids have been developed and released in Taiwan, with ‘Tainung No. 1’ being one of the most common. The yellow passion fruit ‘Hawaiana’ is used in Colombia and Venezuela, along with some of the modern Brazilian selections. There are a number of selections in Brazil, including ‘Muico,’ ‘Peroba’ and ‘Pintado’ (all purple) and the yellow ‘Miram’ and ‘Grande.’ More recently, Brazil has released selections (‘Sol do Cerrado,’ ‘Gigante Amarelo’, 'Rubi do Cerrado' and ‘Ouro Vermelho’) from crosses of the yellow type with fruit that can weigh as much as 650 g. ‘Catarina’  is a new selection from the subtropical region of south Brazil and is a high quality passion fruit for the fresh market. The released hybrids are larger, with increased acidity and more orange aril.
Principal sources: Paull and Duarte (2012)

Propagation

Seed propagation

Passion fruit seeds can be sown immediately or stored at about 10-13°C for future use. Seeds stored at room temperature for 3 months give better than 85% germination. Seeds germinate in about 2 weeks, although germination can extend over 2-3 months because of seed-coat dormancy. Cracking the seed coat increases germination, but scarifying with sandpaper or fermenting seeds with wall-degrading enzymes has no effect. However, seed cracking is feasible only for small quantities of seeds. Twelve-hour periods alternating between 20°C and 30°C also increases germination compared with a constant 30°C.
Passion-fruit seedlings are often raised in polythene bags, 15 cm wide and 25 cm deep. Three seeds per bag are sown at a depth of 1 cm and thinned to leave one after two months.

Vegetative propagation

Passiflora species are readily propagated by seeds, cuttings, air layers or grafting onto a selected seedling rootstock. Leafy yellow passion fruit cuttings can also be propagated easily with the aid of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). High levels of NAA cause a reduction in root number and vigour, although the rooting percentage is similar. Grafting and budding are fairly easily performed. Cleft grafting is more successful with adult scions, while whip grafting works better with juvenile material. When the purple passion fruit or its hybrids are the desired cultivars, plants are propagated by grafting on seedlings of the yellow passion fruit. Grafted vines are more vigorous than their seedling counterparts and have longer lifespans. Grafting is done 50-55 cm above the ground to prevent soil contact with the scion. When yellow passion fruit is grown or used as a rootstock, plants are produced exclusively from seed.

In vitro propagation

Micropropagation using axillary buds gives good results.
Principal sources: Paull and Duarte (2012)

Rootstocks

Grafting is often used to control diseases. Yellow passion-fruit is used as a resistant rootstock although other Passiflora species, in particular P. caerulea, show much greater resistance to Phytophthora root rot and Fusarium collar rot. Moreover, P. caerulea is tolerant of rootknot nematodes and to exposure to -1.5°C; it can be propagated from leaf and stem cuttings and is compatible with P. edulis. Wedge and whip grafts on seedling rootstocks – sometimes on rooted cuttings – are used.

Nutritional Value

Passion fruit is valued more for its unique flavour and aroma than for its nutritional value, although yellow and purple passion fruits are good sources of provitamin A, niacin, riboflavin and ascorbic acid. Yellow passion fruit has an average juice yield of 30–33%, while purple passion fruit has a yield of 45–50%. Yellow passion fruit juice has 2410 mg/100 ml of vitamin A, while purple passion fruit has only 717 mg/100 ml.
Principal sources: Paull and Duarte (2012)

Phytosanitary Issues/Food Safety

Phytosanitary issues

Ceratitis capitata is a quarantine pest in some countries, and although reported as a pest of P. edulis, it is thought to be less of a problem in some places passionfruits are grown, for example in Colombia (Rengifo et al., 2011). Ceratitis capitata is listed as a quarantine pest in USA, Belarus and New Zealand, and is on the EPPO 1A or A2 list for several others (EPPO, 2016). Passionfruits from mainland USA are not allowed into Hawaii without prior arrangement for permits and/or quarantine treatments/certification (Hawaii Government, 2016).
Imports of passionfruit to the USA require an import permit, phytosanitary certificate and other documents relating to specific pests in the country of origin, e.g., Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida for imports from New Zealand (New Zealand Government, 2015).
Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae and B. tryoni are quarantine pests in the USA and other countries (EPPO, 2016).
Alternaria passiflorae was listed as a quarantine pest in Israel in 2009 (EPPO, 2016).

Food safety

Fruits contain a cyanogenic glycoside in the pulp that is highest in unripe fruits and very low in fallen wrinkled fruits, so should not pose health risks if eaten when ripe (Morton, 1987).

Production and Trade

Passion-fruit is a small crop; the estimated commercial area in a dozen major producing countries is only about 4500 ha. Roughly 3000 ha is in South America, mainly in Brazil, Peru and Ecuador. Sri Lanka is by far the most important producer in Asia with 800 ha. Australasia has about 550 ha, including Papua New Guinea (80 ha) and Fiji (70 ha).
The commercial crop is largely converted into juice, about half of which enters world trade.

Markets &amp; Marketing

In Kenya, standards have been laid down for fresh fruit for export, including a diameter size larger than 25 mm, and a smooth, clean, unblemished and fresh coloured skin. The fruit is packed in a single layer in rigid containers with ventilation slots. The containers are lined with tissue paper and on top of the fruit a layer of padding material is placed to ensure a firm pack.
Marketing standards for the fresh-fruit market in Australia require half- to full-ripe fruit, not less than 35% pulp and larger than 4 cm in diameter. Diseased or badly blemished fruit are culled. Dark-purple fruits with
120–140 fruits/carton attract the best prices. Growers wax the fruit to extend shelf-life and secure higher prices.
Principal sources: Paull and Duarte (2012)

Prospects

In spite of a volatile history, the prospects for passion-fruit in the tropics appear to be favourable: large home markets provide a solid basis for expansion, and more resistant cultivars and improved crop protection should go a long way towards maintaining crop health. The possibilities for increasing exports of fresh fruit pulp and juice to countries such as Japan and Korea Republic, as well as to Europe and North America, should also be explored

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

More work, using modern methods, needs to be done to determine the phylogenetic (including genetics and morphological) relationships between the recognized forms and between regional populations. It may be difficult to discern what its true native range is, but some effort to clearly describe it using objective criteria could be worthwhile.

Links to Websites

NameURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global Invasive Species Database (GISD)http://www.issg.org/database/ 
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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Published online: 27 June 2014

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Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez
Christopher E Buddenhagen

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