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7 October 2016

Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)

Datasheet Types: Crop, Tree, Invasive species, Host plant

Abstract

This datasheet on Tecoma capensis covers Identity, Overview, Distribution, Dispersal, Biology & Ecology, Environmental Requirements, Natural Enemies, Impacts, Uses, Further Information.

Identity

Preferred Scientific Name
Tecoma capensis (Thunb.) Lindl.
Preferred Common Name
Cape honeysuckle
Other Scientific Names
Bignonia capensis Thunb.
Ducoudraea capensis Bureau
Gelseminum capense (Lindl.) Kuntze
Tecoma petersii Klotzsch
Tecomaria capensis (Thunb.) Spach
Tecomaria capensis var. flava Verdc.
Tecomaria krebsii Klotzsch
Tecomaria petersii Klotzsch
International Common Names
English
tecoma
fire flower
flame vine
red tecoma
Spanish
bejuco trompeta
flor trompeta
jazmín trompeta
French
bignone
bouquet
jasmin du Cap
técome
bignone du Cap
chèvrefeuille du Cap
German
Kapgeißblatt
Local Common Names
Cuba
bignonia de río
jazmín de virginia
jazmín trompeta
Dominican Republic
flor trompeta
jazmín trompeta
bejuco trompeta
terebinto
Germany
Trompetenwinde, Kapländische
Italy
bignonia del Capo
South Africa
umsilingi
malangula
Sweden
kaptrumpet
USA/Hawaii
‘i‘iwi haole
EPPO code
TEOCA (Tecomaria capensis)

Pictures

Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); flowers and leaves. Keokea, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Habit
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); flowers and leaves. Keokea, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
Flowers
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); habit with flowers. Holiday Inn Express Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. December 2007.
Habit
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); habit with flowers. Holiday Inn Express Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. December 2007.
©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); open seedpod. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
Seedpod
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle); open seedpod. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Summary of Invasiveness

T. capensis is an evergreen vine-like shrub that is widely cultivated in tropical areas and in warm temperate regions of the world as an ornamental and hedge plant (Orwa et al., 2009; USDA-ARS, 2016). T. capensis spreads by wind-dispersed seeds, but also by cuttings and rooted suckers which are traits that have helped it to escape from cultivation and become naturalized in secondary forests, forest margins and ruderal sites (Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016; PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016). Currently, it is listed as invasive in Cuba, the Azores, Madeira, Australia and New Zealand, mainly due to its scrambling habit and the capability to form dense thickets that smother other plants (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; DAISIE, 2016; ISSG, 2016Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Taxonomic Tree

This content is currently unavailable.

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

The family Bignoniaceae includes about 110 genera and 800 species (Stevens, 2012) of trees, shrubs, and lianas distributed predominantly in the Neotropics, but also in Africa and tropical Asia (Olmstead et al., 2009). Approximately half of both genera and species belong to the New World endemic tribe Bignonieae, which comprise a major component of the neotropical liana flora (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Olmstead et al., 2009).
Tecoma is a small genus comprising between 10 and 14 species (Wood, 2008; The Plant List, 2013), with two species being found in southern Africa and the remainder in tropical America. The African species have sometimes been treated as a separate genus: Tecomaria, but botanists working on this family considered that there was no robust morphological evidence to support the separation from Tecoma and thus they should be treated as one (Wood, 2008; Stevens, 2012). More recently, however, molecular studies have shown that Tecomaria is in fact more closely related to the genus Podranea (the only other African member of the clade Tecomeae) than to the genus Tecoma (Olmstead et al., 2009). Mutshinyalo and Notten (2016), therefore, state that the genus Tecomaria has been reinstated for the African species, and Tecoma kept for New World species. This datasheet follows The Plant List (2013) in using Tecoma capensis.

Despite the common name Cape honeysuckle for this species, it is not closely related to the true honeysuckle, Lonicera spp. The species name capensis means ‘of or from the Cape’, referring to the native range in the Cape of South Africa. Tecoma is a contraction of the Mexican name for one of the species: tecomaxachitl (Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016).

Plant Type

Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Description

T. capensis is a clambering or semi-erect shrub, 3-4 m in length. Stems cylindrical, lenticellate, puberulous; cross section of the mature stem with peripheral phloem not forming a cross. Leaves opposite, imparipinnate, 7-11-foliolate, without tendrils; leaflets 1.5-4.2 × 1-3 cm, elliptical to sub-rounded, membranaceous, sessile, the apex rounded, the base rounded or abruptly cuneate, the margins serrate; upper surface dull, pale, with slightly prominent venation; lower surface light green, dull, punctate, with slightly prominent venation, forming a conspicuous network, with tufts of hairs in the axils; petioles 1.5-2.5 cm long; pseudo-stipules absent. Flowers numerous in axillary racemes; pedicel 6-10 mm long. Calyx green, 5-7 mm long, 5-dentate, ciliate, puberulent; corolla orange or reddish orange, tubular, curved, 3.5-5 cm long, with 5 oblong, unequal lobes, the 2 upper lobes smaller than the 3 lower; stamens 4, of equal length; ovary superior, oblong, glabrous. Capsule linear, 5-11 cm long and 7-8 mm wide; seeds in 2 rows, slender, 2-winged, the wings hyaline-membranaceous (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Distribution

T. capensis is native to southern Africa (i.e., South Africa, Swaziland and southern Mozambique) (PROTA, 2016; Ulloa, 2016). In South Africa, it is widely distributed throughout Limpopo, Mpumalanga, and along the KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape coasts (Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016). It is widely commercialized and cultivated as an ornamental in Europe, India, Singapore, Australia, tropical America and on islands in the Indian and the Pacific Oceans (PIER, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Distribution Map

This content is currently unavailable.

Distribution Table

This content is currently unavailable.

History of Introduction and Spread

T. capensis has been widely cultivated as an ornamental for its showy and bright flowers (Orwa et al., 2009). This species was introduced to the United States from South Africa in 1954 (Everett, 1982). In Australia, it can be found widely naturalized in the coastal districts of Queensland, in the coastal districts of central and northern New South Wales, and in eastern Victoria (Weeds of Australia, 2016). It was introduced into Hawaii in the early 1900’s and is grown as an ornamental hedge plant (ZipCodeZoo, 2016). In New Zealand it was reported as naturalized in 1958 (NZPCN, 2016). In the West Indies it appears in herbarium collections made in 1886 in Puerto Rico, 1907 in Jamaica, 1908 in Bermuda and in 1911 in Cuba (Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016).

Introductions

Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonsIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
USASouth Africa1954 YesNo 

Risk of Introduction

The risk of introduction of T. capensis is high. Risk assessment evaluations have shown that this species has the potential to escape from cultivation and become naturalized and invasive in natural areas. In addition, it is well adapted to a wide variety of habitats and soil types (PIER, 2016; ISSG, 2016). In a Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawaii, it was given a score of 6, Evaluate (PIER, 2016).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

T. capensis spreads by seeds and vegetatively by runners (i.e., plants root wherever they touch the ground: Staples and Herbst, 2005). T. capensis seeds have two membranous wings and are dispersed by wind (Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016).

Pathway Causes

Pathway causeNotesLong distanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause)Grown in botanical gardensYesYes
Disturbance (pathway cause)Occur in secondary forests and along drainage linesYesYes
Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause)Escaped from cultivation/gardensYesYes
Hedges and windbreaks (pathway cause)Often grown as an ornamental hedge plantYesYes
Horticulture (pathway cause)Ornamental – showy flowersYesYes
Internet sales (pathway cause)Seeds sold onlineYesYes 
Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Commercialized as ornamental and hedge plantYesYes

Pathway Vectors

Pathway vectorNotesLong distanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activities (pathway vector)Capsules and stem fragments in dumped garden wasteYesYes
Wind (pathway vector)Winged seedsYesYes

Habitat

T. capensis grows in moist areas, dry scrublands, on slopes of rocky hills, and in woodlands at elevations from sea level up to 2300 m. It can also be found in forest margins but more commonly along drainage lines (Orwa et al., 2009). In South Africa, T. capensis occurs on coastal dune scrubs, woodlands and dry thickets (PROTA, 2016), and occasionally in forest margins (Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016). In Puerto Rico it is cultivated in gardens along the Cordillera Central (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Habitat List

CategorySub categoryHabitatPresenceStatus
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areasPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areasPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublandsPresent, no further detailsNatural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublandsPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
Littoral Coastal areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Littoral Coastal areasPresent, no further detailsNatural
Littoral Coastal areasPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
Littoral Coastal dunesPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
Littoral Coastal dunesPresent, no further detailsNatural
Littoral Coastal dunesPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

Genetics

The chromosome number reported for T. capensis is 2n=36 (PROTA, 2016).

Reproductive Biology
The flowers of T. capensis are visited and pollinated by nectar-feeding birds, especially sunbirds. Flowers are also by visited by honeybees and butterflies (Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016; PROTA, 2016). 

Physiology and Phenology
T. capensis is a perennial fast-growing vine-like shrub (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). In southern Africa, T. capensis has been recorded flowering from June to November and fruiting from October to February (Orwa et al., 2009). In Puerto Rico, it has been collected in flower in February and March (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Associations
In Southern Africa the larvae of two hawkmoth species Acherontia atropos and Coelonia mauritii have been reported eating the leaves of T. capensis (PROTA, 2016).

Environmental Requirements
T. capensis thrives in both wet and dry habitats on areas with full to partial sun. It prefers to grow on well-drained, fertile soil with pH ranging from 5.5 to 7.8  (Staples and Herbst, 2005; PROTA, 2016). Plants are salt-tolerant and remarkably tolerant to drought periods (Orwa et al., 2009; Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016).

Climate

Climate typeDescriptionPreferred or toleratedRemarks
Af - Tropical rainforest climate> 60mm precipitation per monthPreferred 
Am - Tropical monsoon climateTropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))Preferred 
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer< 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])Preferred 
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate< 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])Preferred 
BS - Steppe climate> 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitationPreferred 
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summerWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summersTolerated 
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winterWarm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)Preferred 
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all yearWarm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all yearTolerated 

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude lower (m)Altitude upper (m)
3740  

Air Temperature

ParameterLower limit (°C)Upper limit (°C)
Mean annual temperature2226
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month1017

Rainfall

ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration  number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall7501750mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

Soil texture > light
Soil texture > medium
Soil drainage > free
Soil reaction > acid
Soil reaction > neutral

List of Pests

This content is currently unavailable.

Notes on Natural Enemies

The pathogenic fungus Phytophthora palmivora and the Alfalfa mosaic virus have been detected on T. capensis (Orwa et al., 2009; Lockhart and Mollov, 2012). In Southern Africa the larvae of two hawkmoth species Acherontia atropos and Coelonia mauritii have been reported eating the leaves of T. capensis (PROTA, 2016).

Natural enemies

Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Phytophthora palmivora (coconut budrot)Pathogen
Other/All Stages
not specific   
Alfalfa mosaic virus (alfalfa yellow spot)Pathogen
Other/All Stages
not specific   
Acherontia atropos (death's head hawkmoth)Herbivore
Other/All Stages
not specific   
Coelonia mauritiiHerbivore
Other/All Stages
not specific   

Impact Summary

CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenityPositive
Economic/livelihoodPositive and negative
Environment (generally)Positive and negative
Human healthPositive

Impact: Environmental

T. capensis is regarded as an environmental weed in Queensland and New South Wales (Weeds of Australia, 2016). Additionally, it has been listed as invasive in Cuba, the Azores, Madeira, New Zealand and Australia mainly due to its scrambling habit. This species spreads and becomes naturalized in natural areas where it can grow forming dense thickets that smother native vegetation (Oviedo et al., 2012; DAISIE, 2016; ISSG, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016). In New Zealand this invasive species has a strong tendency to ramble if left uncut, and ability to layer itself indefinitely away from the original hedge site (NZPCN, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

Invasiveness

Proved invasive outside its native range
Abundant in its native range
Highly adaptable to different environments
Is a habitat generalist
Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
Long lived
Fast growing
Gregarious
Reproduces asexually

Impact outcomes

Conflict
Damaged ecosystem services
Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
Loss of medicinal resources
Monoculture formation
Reduced native biodiversity
Threat to/ loss of native species

Impact mechanisms

Competition - monopolizing resources
Competition - smothering
Pest and disease transmission
Hybridization
Rapid growth
Rooting

Likelihood of entry/control

Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

T. capensis is planted to protect surrounding soil from erosion. The foliage is readily browsed by stock and game. Because the flowers are rich in nectar, it is sometimes planted by beekeepers as a food source for honey bees. It is often planted in gardens and parks to attract birds and butterflies (Orwa et al., 2009; PROTA, 2016; Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016).

Economic Value
T. capensis is widely commercialized as an ornamental garden plant. It is commonly planted for screening and decorative purposes. It can also be trimmed to form hedges (Orwa et al., 2009; Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016; PROTA, 2016).

Social Benefit
In Southern Africa, the powdered bark of this species is used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of fever, pneumonia and stomach troubles, also rubbed on bleeding gums to promote blood clotting. A leaf decoction is used to treat diarrhoea and intestinal inflammation (Orwa et al., 2009; Mutshinyalo and Notten, 2016; PROTA, 2016).

Uses List

General > Botanical garden/zoo
Environmental > Amenity
Environmental > Boundary, barrier or support
Environmental > Erosion control or dune stabilization
Medicinal, pharmaceutical > Traditional/folklore
Ornamental > Cut flower
Ornamental > Seed trade
Animal feed, fodder, forage > Fodder/animal feed
Human food and beverage > Honey/honey flora

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

Even though T. capensis has been listed as invasive in many countries, there is no information available for the mitigation, control or management of this species.

Links to Websites

NameURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
PlantzAfrica fact-sheet for Tecomaria capensishttp://pza.sanbi.org/tecomaria-capensis 
The New Zealand Plant Conservation Networkhttp://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.aspx?ID=2824 

References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions to U.S. National Herbarium, 51:1-483. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/PRFlora/vines.html
Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf
Correa A, Galdames C, Stapf M, 2004. Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 599 pp.
DAISIE, 2016. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway.www.europe-aliens.org/default.do
Everett TH, 1982. USA: Taylor & Francis.
Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer JY, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia).http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf
ISSG, 2016. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/
Idárraga-Piedrahita A, Ortiz RDC, Callejas Posada R, Merello M, 2011. Medellín, Colombia: Universidad de Antioquia. 939 pp.
Jørgensen PM, Nee MH, Beck SG, 2014. Catalogue of vascular plants of Bolivia. Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 127:1-1744
Lockhart BE, Mollov D, 2012. First Report of Alfalfa mosaic virus Occurrence in Tecoma capensis in the USA. Plant Management Network. https://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/brief/2012/honeysuckle/
MacKee HS, 1994. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. 164 pp.
McCormack G, 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp
Mutshinyalo TT, Notten A, 2016. Tecomaria capensis (Thunb.) Spach. In: PlantZAfrica.com - Online resources. Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden. http://pza.sanbi.org/tecomaria-capensis
NZPCN, 2016. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/
Olmstead RG, Zjhra ML, Lohmann LG, Grose SO, Eckert AJ, 2009. A molecular phylogeny and classification of Bignoniaceae.American Journal of Botany, 961731-1743.
Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sites/treedbs/treedatabases.asp
Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.
PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
PROTA, 2016. PROTA4U web database. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.info
Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/
Staples GW, Herbst DR, 2005. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press.
Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/
The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org
USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/
Ulloa C, 2016. World Checklist of Bignoniaceae. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959
Wood JR, 2008. A revision of Tecoma Juss.(Bignoniaceae) in Bolivia.Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 156143-172.
Wu T, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised):384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php
ZipCodeZoo, 2016. Online information for Tecoma capensis. http://zipcodezoo.com/index.php?title=Tecoma_capensis&redirect=no

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