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3 July 2007

Bos taurus (cattle)

Datasheet Types: Livestock species, Invasive species, Host animal

Abstract

This datasheet on Bos taurus covers Identity, Overview, Distribution, Dispersal, Biology & Ecology, Physiology, Impacts, Uses, Prevention/Control, Management, Further Information.

Identity

Preferred Scientific Name
Bos taurus
Preferred Common Name
cattle
Other Scientific Names
Bos indicus Linnaeus, 1758
Bos primigenius Bojanes, 1827
International Common Names
English
bull
bulls
calf
calves
cow
cows
ox
oxen
taurine cattle
Spanish
ganados
French
bétail
vaches
veau
Local Common Names
Germany
Hausrind
Vieh
Italy
bestiami
Portugal
gado
DADIS local name
Aurochs
DADIS local name
B.p. namadicus
DADIS local name
B.p. opisthonomus
DADIS local name
B.p. primigenius
DADIS local name
Bos
DADIS local name
reem
DADIS local name
rimu
DADIS local name
Ur
DADIS local name
urus
DADIS local name
wild ox
DADIS local name
Willayati and Cross
DADIS main name
Exotic and cross-bred
DADIS main name
Tur

Pictures

Bos taurus (cattle); feral cattle in the Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. November 2007.
Herd
Bos taurus (cattle); feral cattle in the Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. November 2007.
©Paul Asman & Jill Lenoble/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bos taurus (cattle); feral zebu cattle, at 3800m, in the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. November 2012.
Herd
Bos taurus (cattle); feral zebu cattle, at 3800m, in the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. November 2012.
©Bernard Gagnon, Quebec, Canada/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Bos taurus (cattle); feral Charolais bull, 4600 metres above sea level, in the Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela.
Bull
Bos taurus (cattle); feral Charolais bull, 4600 metres above sea level, in the Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela.
Public Domain - CC0 1.0 (from wikipedia)
Bos taurus (cattle); beef cattle.
Beef cattle
Bos taurus (cattle); beef cattle.
©Helen C. Davison
Bos taurus (cattle); cow and calf.
Cow and calf
Bos taurus (cattle); cow and calf.
©Helen C. Davison

Summary of Invasiveness

Feral cattle (Bos taurus) are escaped or released domestic animals. Unless well contained by adequate fences, they form feral herds and wander into native vegetation wherever suitable food is available. They can severely modify native vegetation by browsing, crushing and trampling. In native forests they invariably lay bare the forest floor and eliminate nearly all young trees, shrubs and ferns until only a few unpalatable or browse-resistant species remain. In subalpine environments feral cattle open up clearings by breaking down and browsing low-canopied vegetation.

Taxonomic Tree

This content is currently unavailable.

Breeds

Breed
Aberdeen-Angus cattle
Abigar cattle
Abondance cattle
Abruzzese cattle
Africander cattle
Agerolese cattle
Alberes cattle
Alentejana cattle
Algarvia cattle
Alistana-Sanabresa cattle
Allmogekor cattle
Almanzoreña cattle
Alpha 16 cattle
Altai cattle
Alur cattle
American Breed cattle
Anatolian Black cattle
Andalusian Black cattle
Andalusian Grey cattle
Angeln cattle
Angola cattle
Ankole cattle
Ansbach-Triesdorfer cattle
Aosta Black Pied cattle
Aosta Chestnut cattle
Aosta Red Pied cattle
Aquitaine Blond cattle
Arado cattle
Armorican cattle
Arouquesa cattle
Aubrac cattle
Aulie-Ata cattle
Aure et Saint-Girons cattle
Australian Braford cattle
Australian Charbray cattle
Australian Milking Zebu cattle
Australian White cattle
Austrian Blond cattle
Avétonou cattle
Avileña-Black Iberian cattle
Ayrshire cattle
Babaev cattle
Baggara cattle
Baila cattle
Bainiu cattle
Bakosi cattle
Ballum cattle
Bambara cattle
Bambawa cattle
Bambey cattle
Bamileke cattle
Bardigiana cattle
Baria cattle
Barotse cattle
Barrosa cattle
Barroso cattle
Barzona cattle
Bashan cattle
Bashi cattle
Basuto cattle
Batanes Black cattle
Batangas cattle
Bavenda cattle
Bazadais cattle
Béarnaise cattle
Beef Synthetic cattle
Beefalo cattle
Beefmaker cattle
Beefmaster cattle
Beevbilde cattle
Belarus Synthetic cattle
Belgian Blue cattle
Belgian Red cattle
Belgian Red Pied cattle
Belgian White-and-Red cattle
Belmont Red cattle
Bergscheck cattle
Berrenda en colorado cattle
Berrenda en negro cattle
Bestuzhev cattle
Betizuak cattle
Binga cattle
Black Iberian cattle
Blacksided Trondheim and Nordland cattle
Blanco Orejimono cattle
Bleu du Nord cattle
Blue Albion cattle
Bo Vang cattle
Bohai Black
Bohemian Red cattle
Bohemian Red Pied cattle
Bohuskulla cattle
Bolowana cattle
Bonsmara cattle
Bonyhádi cattle
Bordelais cattle
Borgou cattle
Bos bison (American bison)
Bos frontalis
Bos gaurus
Bos javanicus
Bos primigenius
Bos sauveli
Bos taurus (cattle)
Botswana Beef Synthetic cattle
Bovelder cattle
Braford cattle
Brangus cattle
Brazilian Milking Crossbred cattle
Brazilian Polled cattle
Bressane cattle
Breton Black Pied cattle
British White cattle
Broadlands cattle
Brown Atlas cattle
Brownsind cattle
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)
Buchan Humlie cattle
Bucsana cattle
Burlina cattle
Burwash cattle
Busa cattle
Bushuev cattle
Cabannina cattle
Cachena cattle
Calabrian cattle
Calasparreña cattle
Caldeano cattle
Caldelana cattle
Calvana cattle
Camandona cattle
Camargue cattle
Cambodian cattle
Campurriana cattle
Canadienne cattle
Canary Island cattle
Canchim cattle
Caracu cattle
Carniella cattle
Carora cattle
Carpathian Brown cattle
Carreña cattle
Casanareño cattle
Casina cattle
Castle Martin cattle
cattalo
Caucasian Brown cattle
Caucasian cattle
Central American Dairy Criollo cattle
Central Russian Black Pied cattle
Chaouia cattle
Chaqueño cattle
Charbray cattle
Charford cattle
Charolais cattle
Char-Swiss cattle
Chau-Doc cattle
Cheb cattle
Cheju cattle
Chernigov cattle
Chesi cattle
Cheurfa cattle
Chianina cattle (Chianina)
Chianino-Maremmana cattle
Chillingham cattle
China cattle
Chinampo cattle
Chinese Black-and-White
Chinese Kazahk cattle
Chinese Yellow Cattle Breeds
Chino Santandereano cattle
Chusco cattle
Ciernostrakate
Cika cattle
Cildir cattle
Cinisara cattle
Coopelso 93 cattle
Cornish cattle
Corsican cattle
Costeño con Cuernos cattle
Cotentin cattle
Créole cattle (Martinique)
Criollo cattle
Croatian Brown cattle
Croatian Steppe cattle
Cukurova cattle
Cuprem Hybrid cattle
Curraleiro cattle
Cutchi cattle
Cyprus cattle
Czech Black Pied cattle
Czech Pied cattle
Dabieshan cattle
Dagestan Brown cattle
Dagestan Mountain cattle
Dairy Hungarian Brown cattle
Dairy Hungarian Pied cattle
Dairy Maine Anjou cattle
Dairy Synthetic cattle
Dajjal cattle
Dalmatian Grey cattle
Damara cattle
Damascus cattle
Damietta cattle
Danakil cattle
Dangjiao Black
Danish Black Pied cattle
Danish Red cattle
Danish Red Pied cattle
Danish Shorthorn cattle
Danube cattle
Darbalara cattle
Dariy Indo-European cattle
Deep Red cattle
Demonte cattle
Dengchuan cattle
Deoni cattle
desi cattle
Devon cattle
Dexter cattle
Diali cattle
Dishti cattle
Diyarbakir cattle
Djakore cattle
Dnieper cattle
Dole cattle
Doppelntzung Rotbunt cattle
Doran cattle
Dortyol cattle
Drakensberger cattle
Drimmon cattle
Droughtmaster cattle
Dutch Belted cattle
Dutch Improved Red Pied cattle
East Anatolian Red cattle
East Finnish cattle
Eastern Red Pied cattle
Egyptian cattle
Eleskirt cattle
Enderby Island cattle
Eo cattle
Estonian Native cattle
Estonian Red cattle
Evolénard cattle
Faeroes cattle
Femeline cattle
Fergana cattle
Ferrandais cattle
Fife Horned cattle
Fighting bull
Fjaell-Rind cattle
Fjallnara cattle
Flemish cattle
Flemish Red cattle
Florida Cracker cattle
Fogera cattle
Franqueiro cattle
French Red Pied Lowland cattle
French Western Red cattle
Fribourg cattle
Frieiresa cattle
Friesian cattle breeds
Frijolillo cattle
Froment du Léon cattle
Fuzhou cattle
Galician Blond cattle
Galloway cattle
Gaotai cattle
Garfagnina cattle
Garonnais cattle
Gasara cattle
Gascon aréolé cattle
Gascon cattle
Gelbvieh cattle
Georgian Mountain cattle
German Brown cattle
German Red cattle
Gessien cattle
Glamorgan cattle
Glanrind cattle
Gloucester cattle
Gole cattle
Golpayegani cattle
Goryn cattle
Govuvu cattle
Greater Caucasus cattle
Greek Shorthorn cattle
Grey Adige cattle
Grey Alpine cattle
Grey Val di Fiemme cattle
Groningen Whiteheaded cattle
Grossetana cattle
Guadeloupe Créole cattle
Guademar cattle
Guernsey cattle
Gujamavu cattle
Güney sarisi cattle
Guzerá cattle
Habbani cattle
Hainan Humped cattle
Halhïn Gol cattle
Hallikar cattle
Hartón cattle
Hash Cross cattle
Hatton cattle
Hawaiian cattle
Hays Converter cattle
Heck cattle
Hereford & Polled Hereford cattle
Hérens cattle
Herrgård cattle
Highland cattle
Hinterwald cattle
Hmong cattle
Holderness cattle
Holmonger cattle
Holstein cattle
Horro cattle
Hottentot cattle
Hrbinecky cattle
Huangpi cattle
Huguenot cattle
Humbi cattle
Hungarian Brown cattle
Hungarian Grey cattle
Hutsul cattle
Ialomita cattle
Ibagé cattle
Icelandic cattle
Igarapé cattle
Iliolo cattle
Ilocos cattle
Indo-Brazilian cattle
Inkuku cattle
Innviertel cattle
INRA 9 cattle
INRA 95 cattle
Inyambo cattle
Iraqi cattle
Irecé cattle
Irish Dun cattle
Isigny cattle
Iskar cattle
Istoben cattle
Istrian cattle
Jamaica Hope cattle
Jamaica Red cattle
Japanese Black cattle
Japanese Improved cattle
Jaulan cattle
Javanês cattle
Jersey cattle
Jersind cattle
Jiaxian Red
Jiddu cattle
Jinan cattle
Jinnan cattle
Jochberg Hummel cattle
Junqueiro cattle
Jutland Black Pied cattle
Jutland cattle
Kabyle cattle
Kalmuk cattle
Kalmyk cattle
Kandahari cattle
Kangayam cattle
Kaokoveld cattle
Karacadag cattle
Karaisali cattle
Karan Fries cattle
Karan Swiss cattle
Karelian cattle
Kashibi cattle
Katerini cattle
Kazakh cattle
Kemerovo cattle
Kemp cattle
Kerry cattle
Keteku cattle
Khasi cattle
Khevsurian cattle
Kho Peun Nuang Thai E-San cattle
Kholmogory cattle
Khurasani cattle
Kigezi cattle
Kilara cattle
Kisantu cattle
Kolubara cattle
Konari cattle
Korean Native cattle
Kravarsky cattle
Kuban-Black Sea cattle
Kuchinoshima cattle
Kultak cattle
Kurdi cattle
Kurgan cattle
Kuri cattle
Kwaniama cattle
La Velasquez
Lagune cattle
Laramane cattle
Latvian Blue cattle
Latvian Brown cattle
Lavinia cattle
Lebanese cattle
Lebaniega cattle
Lechtal cattle
Leonese cattle
Lesser Caucasus cattle
Libyan cattle
Limiana cattle
Limousin cattle
Limpurger cattle
Lincoln Red cattle
Lisna Red cattle
Lithuanian Black Pied cattle
Lithuanian Light Grey cattle
Lithuanian Red cattle
Lithuanian White Black cattle
Llanero cattle
Lohani cattle
Longhorn cattle
Lord Caernarvons breed cattle
Lorii cattle
Lorquina cattle
Lourdais cattle
Lucanian cattle
Lucerna cattle
Luing cattle
Luxi cattle
Magal cattle
Maine-Anjou cattle
Majorcan cattle
Makaweli cattle
Malabar cattle
Malakan cattle
Malnad Gidda cattle
Maltese cattle
Malvi cattle
Mancelle cattle
Mandalong Special cattle
Mantiqueira cattle
Manufi cattle
Maraîchin cattle
Marchigiana cattle
Marchois cattle
Maremmana cattle
Marianas cattle
Marine Landais cattle
Marinera cattle
Marinhoa cattle
Maroilles cattle
Maronesa cattle
Maryuti cattle
Mashona cattle
Mateba cattle
Mauritius Creole cattle
Meiniu cattle
Meknès Black Pied cattle
Menno-Friesian cattle
Menufi cattle
Mertolenga cattle
Messaoria cattle
Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cattle
Meymac cattle
Meyssac cattle
Mézenc cattle
Mingrelian Red cattle
Minhota cattle
Minnan cattle
Minorcan cattle
Mirandesa cattle
Mishima cattle
Miskov cattle
Modenese cattle
Modicana cattle
Moldavian Black-and-White cattle
Moldovian Estonian Red cattle
Mölltal cattle
Monchina cattle
Mongalla cattle
Mongolian Cattle
Montana cattle
Montbéliard cattle
Montgomeryshire cattle
Moravian Red cattle
Moravian Red Pied cattle
Morucha cattle
Morvan cattle
Mostrenca cattle
Mucubai cattle
mulley cattle
Murboden cattle
Murcian cattle
Murray Grey cattle
Mürztal cattle
Muturu cattle
Mysol cattle
N Gaoundéré cattle
Nagori cattle
Nakali cattle
Nama cattle
Nantais cattle
Nanyang cattle
Navarre cattle
N'Dama cattle
Nejdi cattle
Nganda cattle
Ngoua cattle
Nguni cattle
Niata cattle
Nilo cattle
Nilotic cattle
Nkone cattle
Norfolk horned cattle
Normande cattle
North European Polled cattle
North Finnish cattle
North Slesvig Red cattle
North Wales Black cattle
Northern Dairy Shorthorn cattle
Norwegian cattle
Nuba Mountain cattle
Nuras cattle
Ocampo cattle
Oka Black Pied cattle
Oka cattle
Old Marlborough Red cattle
Old Red Angeln cattle
Ondongolo cattle
Ongole cattle
Oran cattle
Orkney cattle
Oropa cattle
Ossolana cattle
Oulmès-Zaërs Blond cattle
Ovambo cattle
Pabna cattle
Pajuna cattle
Pallaresa cattle
Palmera cattle
Panjiang cattle
Pantaneiro cattle
Paphos cattle
Parthenais cattle
Pasiega cattle
Pasturina cattle
Patuá cattle
Pecanite cattle
Pedi cattle
Pedreiro cattle
Pee Wee cattle
Perijanero cattle
Perugina cattle
Philamin cattle
Philippine Native cattle
Picardy cattle
Piedmont cattle
Pinglu Mountain cattle
Pinzgauer cattle
Pisana cattle
Pitangueiras cattle
Podolian Black Pied cattle
Podolian cattle
Polesian cattle
Polish Red cattle
Polish Red-and-White cattle
Polish Whitebacked cattle
Polled Albion cattle
Polled Derby cattle
Polled Guzerá cattle
Pontremolese cattle
Posavina cattle
Preta cattle
Puerto Rican cattle
Punganur cattle
Pustertaler Sprinzen cattle
Pyrenean Blond cattle
Pyrenean Brown cattle
Pyrenean cattle
Qinchuan cattle
Quercy cattle
Quinhentão cattle
Ramo Grande cattle
Rana cattle
Randall Lineback cattle
Ranger cattle
Rawicka cattle
Raya-Azebó cattle
RDM-1970 cattle
Red Bororo cattle
Red Brangus cattle
Red Pied Friesian cattle
Red Pied Schleswig-Holstein cattle
Red Pied Swedish cattle
Red Poll cattle
Red Polled Eastland cattle
Red Sadovo cattle
Red Steppe cattle
Reggiana cattle
Regus cattle
Renitelo cattle
Retinta cattle
Rhaetian Grey cattle
Ringamåla cattle
Riopardense cattle
Rodopi cattle
Romagnola cattle
Roman cattle
Romana Red cattle
Romanian Grey cattle
Romosinuano cattle
Russian Black Pied cattle
Russo-Serbian cattle
Rustaqi cattle
Sabre cattle
Saidi cattle
Salers cattle
San Martinero cattle
Sanga cattle breeds
Sanganer cattle
Sanhe cattle
Santa Gabriela cattle
Santa Gertrudis cattle
Santander cattle
Saônaise cattle
Sarabi cattle
Sardinian cattle
Sardo-Modicana cattle
Sayaguesa cattle
Schwyz-Zeboid (zebu)
SDM-1965 cattle
Seferihisar cattle
Selenge cattle
Shangai cattle
Shangan cattle
Sharabi cattle
Sheeted Somerset cattle
Sheko cattle
Shetland cattle
Shorthorn Cattle breeds
Siberian Black Pied cattle
Siberian cattle
Siberian White cattle
Siboney cattle
Sicilian cattle
Silesian Red cattle
Simbra cattle
Simford cattle
Simmalo cattle
Simmental cattle
Siva Rasa cattle
Skåne cattle
Slovakian Red cattle
Slovenian White cattle
Småland cattle
Socotra cattle
Solomon Red cattle
South Anatolian Red cattle
South Devon cattle
South Wales Black cattle
Southern Ukrainian cattle
Stara Planina cattle
Styrian Brown cattle
Sudeten cattle
Suffolk Polled cattle
Suisbú cattle
Suk cattle
Suksun cattle
Sukuma cattle
Sumava cattle
Sunandini cattle
Sussex cattle
Swedish Friesian cattle
Swedish Mountain cattle
Swedish Red Polled cattle
Swedish Red-and-White cattle
Swiss Brown cattle
Swona cattle
Sychevka cattle
Sykia cattle
Tabapuã cattle
Tagil cattle
Taino cattle
Taiwan Yellow cattle
Taleshi cattle
Tarentaise cattle
Tasmanian Grey cattle
Tatu cattle
Tauricus cattle
Taurindicus cattle
Taylor cattle
Teeswater cattle
Telemark cattle
Terreña cattle
Texas Longhorn cattle
Thanh-Hoa cattle
Tharparkar cattle
Thillari cattle
Tibetan cattle
Tinima cattle
Tinos cattle
Tonga cattle
Toupouri cattle
Tourache cattle
Transylvanian cattle
Treignac cattle
Tropical cattle
Tropicana cattle
Tshilengue cattle
TSSHZ-1 cattle
Tswana cattle
Tudanca cattle
Tuli cattle
Tulim cattle
Tuni cattle
Turkish Grey Steppe cattle
Tux cattle
Tuy-Hoa cattle
Tyrol Brown cattle
Tyrol Grey cattle
Tyrol Spotted cattle
Uckermäker cattle
Ujumqin cattle
Ukrainian Grey cattle
Ukrainian Whiteheaded cattle
Ukranian Whitebacked cattle
Ural Black Pied cattle
Urla cattle
Uys cattle
Val di Chiana cattle
Valachian Dwarf cattle
Valbona cattle
Valdarno cattle
Valterese cattle
Vane cattle
Vanellus tectus
Vaynol cattle
Vendonnais cattle
Vestland Fjord cattle
Vestland Red Polled cattle
Vianesa cattle
Victoria cattle
Villard-de-Lans cattle
Volynsk cattle
Vorderwald cattle
Vosges cattle
Vychegda-Vym cattle
Waldviertel cattle
Wanniu cattle
Watusi cattle
Welsh Black cattle
Welsh Mountain cattle
West African Shorthorn cattle
West Finnish cattle
West Siberian cattle
White Cáceres cattle
White Nile cattle
White Park Cattle
Wipptal cattle
Witrik cattle
Wuling cattle
Xinjiang Brown cattle
Xuwen cattle
Yakut cattle
Yanbian cattle
Yangba cattle
Yaroslavl cattle
Yellow Dane cattle
Yugoslav Brown cattle
Zaobei cattle
Zavot cattle
Zhoushan cattle
Zillertal cattle
Znamensk cattle
Zwerg-Zebu cattle

Description

Feral cattle can be distinguished from domestic stock only by their location and lack of ear marks or tags. Their size and conformation vary greatly depending on sex, age and breed. The male is heavier and larger, particularly around the head and neck. The hair is either straight or curly, and ranges from whitish to black with shades and blotches of red, roan, brown or buff. Both sexes can have horns, which are permanent and hollow, and grow throughout life over bony cores projecting from a prominent ridge on the skull. The horns of bulls are usually shorter and thicker than those of cows (Parkes, 2005).

Pathogens Carried

This content is currently unavailable.

Distribution

The ancestors of today's Eurasian breeds of humpless cattle were the "wild aurochs" - large, formidable, long-legged and long-horned beasts - the last of which were hunted to extinction in Poland in 1627. Archaeological evidence suggests that cattle were first domesticated in the Middle East between 6000 and 5000 BC, and spread from there through Africa and Europe. Other early independent centres of domestication included Switzerland, Germany and Denmark. Hundreds of distinct breeds have been produced by artificial selection and transported throughout the world (Parkes, 2005).

Distribution Map

This content is currently unavailable.

Distribution Table

This content is currently unavailable.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Introduction pathways to new locations
Transportation of domesticated animals: Particularly important in Hawaii and New Caledonia as the basis for a meat industry.

Local dispersal methods
Escape from confinement: Unless well contained by adequate fences, cattle wander into native vegetation wherever suitable food is available. If unchecked this can result in the formation of feral herds roaming wild through extensive areas of country.

Pathway Causes

Pathway causeNotesLong distanceLocalReferences
Animal production (pathway cause) YesYes 
Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause)  Yes 

Habitat List

CategorySub categoryHabitatPresenceStatus
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedLarge ruminant farmsPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural landPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areasPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forestsSecondary/tolerated habitatHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslandsPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublandsPresent, no further detailsHarmful (pest or invasive)
TerrestrialTerrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublandsPresent, no further detailsProductive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

Nutrition
In mainland forests feral cattle browse on a very wide range of shrubs and young trees. Feral cattle are afoot at first light, feeding rapidly until the paunch is full, and then they alternate periods of chewing the cud with grazing throughout the day. Normally they ruminate lying down, but in wet weather they may stand with their backs to the wind. In bush country feral cattle will "walk down" tall saplings up to 6m high, straddling the stem in order to bend the tops within reach, and then stripping off the leaves.
Reproduction
The oestrus cycle is 3 weeks, and the gestation period about 9.5 months. Feral calves are most commonly born in late spring. Multiple births are unknown in feral herds. Calves are born with their eyes open, they stand and suckle almost at once, and within a few hours can follow their mother. They are usually weaned well before the next calf is born.
Males reach puberty at about 10 months of age, and thereafter are fecund throughout the year, but feral bulls do not mate until strong enough to compete for cows. Domestic cows can conceive at 6-10 months, but apparently very few do so in the wild. Cows may remain fertile for about 12 years and comes into season in spring for about 3 weeks after calving.

Physiology Table

TypeValue
Heart rate (beats per minute)60 - 70
Respiratory rates (breaths per minute)30
Daily urine volume (mL/kg of body weight)17 - 45
Daily faecal output (kg)14 - 50
Rectal temp (?C+0.5?C)38.5

Haematology

TypeValue
Haemoglobin (g/dL)8 - 15
PCV (%)24 - 46
RBC (x106/µL)5 - 10
MCV (fL)40 - 60
MCH (pg)11 - 17
MCHC (g/dL)30 - 36
Reticulocytes (% of RBC)0
WBC (/µL)4000 - 12000
Neutrophils (mature) (/µL)600 - 4000
Lymphocytes (/µL)2500 - 7500
Monocytes (/µL)25 - 840
Eosinophils (/µL)0 - 2400
Basophils (/µL)0 - 200
Platelets (x105/µL)1 - 8
Plasma proteins (g/dL)6 - 8.5
Fibrinogen (mg/dL)300 - 700

Blood Chemistry

TypeValue
Alkaline phosphatase (U/L)41 - 94
Aspartate aminotranferase (U/L)42 - 98
Bicarbonate (mmol/L)20 - 30
Bilirubin - total (mg/dL)0 - 1.9
Bilirubin - direct (mg/dL)0 - 0.4
Calcium (mg/dL)8 - 10.5
Chloride (mEq/L)95 - 110
Cholesterol (mg/dL)39 - 177
Creatin (mg/dL)1 - 2.7
γ-glutamyltransferase (U/L)13 - 32
Glucose (mg/dL)35 - 55
Iron (µg/dL)57 - 162
Magnesium (mg/dL)1.2 - 3.5
Potassium (mEq/L)3.9 - 5.8
Sodium (mEq/L)132 - 152
Sorbitol dehydrogenase (U/L)18 - 46
Urea Nitrogen (mg/dL)6 - 27
Total Protein (g/dL)5.7 - 8.1
Albumin (g/dL)2.1 - 3.6
α1 globulin (g/dL)
0.7 - 1.2
ß1 globulin (g/dL)0.6 - 1.2
γ1 globulin (g/dL)1.6 - 3.2

List of Diseases and Disorders

This content is currently unavailable.

Impact Summary

CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally)Negative
Crop productionNegative
Economic/livelihoodPositive
Environment (generally)Negative
Forestry productionNegative
Human healthPositive
Livestock productionPositive
Native floraNegative
Rare/protected speciesNegative

Impact

General Impacts

Original text compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

  Feral cattle can severely modify native vegetation by browsing, crushing and trampling (Aston 1912; Wodzicki 1950). In native forests they invariably lay bare the forest floor and eliminate nearly all young trees, shrubs and ferns, until only a few unpalatable or browse-resistant species remain. In subalpine environments feral cattle open up clearings by breaking down and browsing low-canopied vegetation. On sub-antarctic Enderby Island feral cattle prevented the regeneration of Poa litorosa tussock grassland and a variety of endemic sub-antarctic herbs (Parkes, 2005). Scott et al. (in Stone 1984) regarded domestic and feral cattle as the “single most destructive agent to Hawai‘ian ecosystems, particularly to koa forests”. Regeneration of young koa (see Acacia koaia in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) trees is completely suppressed in some forests of Hawai‘I (Baldwin and Fagerlund 1943; SPREP, 2000).   Degradation of breeding sites by introduced cattle has decreased the range and population of the 'critically endangered' Amsterdam albatross (see Diomedea amsterdamensis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species). Across Amsterdam Island in the Southern French Territories (BirdLife International 2007).   Feral cattle can threaten other closely related species through interbreeding. For example, Halbert and Derr (2007) showed through genetic analysis that feral cattle threaten the genetic integrity of populations of North American bison (

Bison bison

).

Threatened Species

Threatened speciesWhere threatenedMechanismsReferencesNotes
Acacia koaia
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Trampling
 
Diomedea amsterdamensis (Amsterdam albatross)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories
  
Aconitum noveboracense (northern wild monkshood)
Iowa
New York
Ohio
Wisconsin
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Adelocosa anops (Kauai cave wolf spider)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Amaranthus pumilus (seabeach amaranth)
California
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Apios priceana (Price's potato-bean)
Alabama
Illinois
Kentucky
Mississippi
Tennessee
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Artemisia campestris var. wormskioldii (Northern wormwood)
Oregon
Washington
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Astragalus anserinus (Goose Creek milkvetch)
Idaho
Nevada
Utah
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Astragalus desereticus (Deseret milkvetch)
Utah
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Astragalus lentiginosus var. piscinensis (Fish Slough milk-vetch)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Bidens campylotheca subsp. pentamera (ko`oko`olau)
California
Oregon
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Bidens campylotheca subsp. waihoiensis (ko`oko`olau)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Bidens micrantha subsp. ctenophylla (ko`oko`olau)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Brodiaea filifolia (thread-Leaved brodiaea)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Brodiaea pallida (Chinese Camp brodiaea)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Canavalia pubescens (jack bean)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Chorizanthe parryi var. fernandina (San Fernando Valley spineflower)
California
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Cyanea asplenifolia (haha)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Cyanea duvalliorum
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Cyanea horrida (prickly cyanea)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Cyanea kunthiana (Kunth's cyanea)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Cyanea magnicalyx
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Cyanea maritae
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Cyanea marksii (Marks' cyanea)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Cyanea mauiensis
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Cyanea munroi
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Cyanea obtusa (bluntlobe cyanea)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Cyanea profuga (Mapulehu Valley cyanea)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii (Jones' cycladenia)
Arizona
Utah
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Cyrtandra oxybapha
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Chrysodracon hawaiiensis (hala pepe)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Drosophila aglaia
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Drosophila differens (Hawaiian picture-wing fly)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Drosophila hemipeza
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Drosophila heteroneura
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Drosophila montgomeryi
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Drosophila musaphilia
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Drosophila ochrobasis
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Drosophila substenoptera
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Drosophila digressa
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Dudleya cymosa subsp. marcescens (marcescent dudleya)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Dudleya nesiotica (Santa Cruz Island dudleya)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Dudleya stolonifera (Laguna Beach liveforever)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Elaphrus viridis (delta green ground beetle)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Escobaria robbinsorum (Cochise pincushion cactus)
Arizona
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Gaura neomexicana subsp. coloradensis (Colorado butterfly plant)
Colorado
Nebraska
Wyoming
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Grindelia fraxinipratensis (ash meadows gumplant)
California
Nevada
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Helianthus paradoxus (paradoxical sunflower)
New Mexico
Texas
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Hesperidanthus argillaceus
Utah
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Hexastylis naniflora (dwarf-flowered heartleaf)
North Carolina
South Carolina
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Huperzia stemmermanniae (Stemmermann's clubmoss)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Hylaeus assimulans (assimulans yellow-faced bee)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Hylaeus facilis (easy yellow-faced bee)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Hylaeus hilaris (hilaris yellow-faced bee)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Hylaeus kuakea (Hawaiian yellow-faced bee)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Hylaeus longiceps
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Hylaeus mana
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Ivesia kingii var. eremica (Ash Meadows ivesia)
California
Nevada
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Ivesia webberi (Webber's ivesia)
California
Nevada
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Lithophragma maximum (San Clemente Island woodland-star)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Lobelia monostachya (Waianae Range lobelia)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Lupinus nipomensis (Nipomo Mesa lupine)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Lyonia truncata var. proctorii (Proctor's staggerbush)
Puerto Rico
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Marstonia ogmoraphe (royal marstonia (snail))
Tennessee
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Melanthera venosa (spreading nehe)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Mucuna sloanei var. persericea
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Neostapfia colusana (Colusa grass)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Ochrosia haleakalae (island yellowwood)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Oncorhynchus aguabonita whitei
California
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Oncorhynchus clarkii seleniris (Paiute cutthroat trout)
California
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Orcuttia californica (California Orcutt grass)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Osmoxylon mariannense
Northern Mariana Islands
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Ovis ammon (argali)
Kyrgyzstan
Mongolia
Tajikistan
Competition - monopolizing resources
 
Ovis canadensis sierrae (Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Paroreomyza flammea (Molokai creeper)
Hawaii
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Partulina semicarinata (Lanai tree snail)
Hawaii
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Partulina variabilis (Lanai tree snail)
Hawaii
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Parvisedum leiocarpum (Lake County stonecrop)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Pediocactus winkleri (Winkler's pincushion cactus)
Utah
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Peristylus holochila (Hawai'i bog orchid)
Hawaii
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Peucedanum sandwicense (makou)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Phacelia insularis var. insularis (island phacelia)
California
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Phyllostegia bracteata (bracted phyllostegia)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis (ulihi phyllostegia)
Hawaii
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Phyllostegia racemosa (kiponapona)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Phyllostegia velutina (velvet phyllostegia)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Physaria congesta (Dudley Bluffs bladderpod)
Colorado
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Physaria filiformis (Missouri bladderpod)
Arkansas
Missouri
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Plagiobothrys hirtus (rough popcorn flower)
Oregon
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Poa atropurpurea (San Bernardino bluegrass)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Pogogyne nudiuscula (Otay Mesa mint)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Pritchardia remota (Remota loula palm)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Pritchardia schattaueri (Lands of Papa pritchardia)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Pseudocopaeodes eunus obscurus (Carson wandering skipper)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Pseudonestor xanthophrys (Maui parrotbill)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Psittirostra psittacea (Ou)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Pteropus mariannus mariannus (Mariana fruit bat)
Guam
Northern Mariana Islands
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Ptilimnium nodosum (harperella)
Alabama
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Pyrgulopsis bernardina (San Bernardino springsnail)
Arizona
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Ranunculus acriformis var. aestivalis (autumn buttercup)
Utah
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Ranunculus hawaiensis (Hawai'ian buttercup)
Hawaii
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Remya kauaiensis (Kauai remya)
Hawaii
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Remya mauiensis (Maui remya)
Hawaii
Trampling
 
Rhinichthys osculus (Kendall Warm Springs dace)
Oregon
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Sarracenia oreophila (green pitcherplant)
Alabama
Georgia
North Carolina
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Schiedea jacobii (Jacobi's schiedea)
Hawaii
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Schiedea kauaiensis (Kauai schiedea)
Hawaii
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Schiedea salicaria
Hawaii
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Sclerocactus brevispinus
Utah
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Sclerocactus glaucus
Colorado
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Serianthes nelsonii
Guam
Northern Mariana Islands
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Sesbania tomentosa
Hawaii
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Sicyos albus (white burr cucumber)
Hawaii
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Sidalcea keckii (Keck's checker-mallow)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Silene spaldingii (Spalding's catchfly)
Idaho
Montana
Oregon
Washington
Behaviour disruption
 
Solanum nelsonii (popolo)
Hawaii
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Spermolepis hawaiiensis (Hawaii scaleseed)
Hawaii
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Speyeria callippe callippe (callippe silverspot butterfly)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Speyeria zerene hippolyta (Oregon silverspot butterfly)
California
Oregon
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Spiranthes delitescens
Arizona
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Stahlia monosperma
Puerto Rico
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Stenogyne kanehoana (Oahu stenogyne)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Stephanomeria malheurensis (Malheur wire-lettuce)
Oregon
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (Xantus' murrelet)
Canada
Mexico
California
Oregon
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Acmispon dendroideus var. traskiae (San Clemente Island broom)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Taraxacum californicum (California taraxacum)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Tetramolopium remyi (Awalua Ridge tetramolopium)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Tetramolopium rockii (dune tetramolopium)
Hawaii
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Thelypodium howellii subsp. spectabilis (Howell's spectacular thelypody)
Oregon
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Thymophylla tephroleuca (ashy dogweed)
Texas
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Townsendia aprica (last chance townsendia)
Utah
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Trifolium dichotomum (showy Indian clover)
USA
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Tuctoria greenei (Greene's tuctoria)
California
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Tuctoria mucronata (solano grass)
California
  
Urocyon littoralis catalinae (Santa Catalina Island fox)
California
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Lepidaploa proctorii
Puerto Rico
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Vetericaris chaceorum (anchialine pool shrimp)
Hawaii
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Vicia menziesii (Hawaiian vetch)
Hawaii
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Villosa perpurpurea (purple bean)
USA
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Vulpes macrotis mutica (San Joaquin kit fox)
California
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
 
Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosum
Hawaii
Ecosystem change / habitat alteration
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 
Zeltnera namophila (spring-loving centaury)
California
Nevada
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
 

Risk and Impact Factors

Invasiveness

Proved invasive outside its native range
Is a habitat generalist
Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
Long lived

Impact outcomes

Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
Host damage
Increases vulnerability to invasions
Negatively impacts agriculture
Negatively impacts forestry
Reduced native biodiversity
Threat to/ loss of endangered species
Threat to/ loss of native species

Impact mechanisms

Competition - monopolizing resources
Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Hybridization
Trampling

Uses

Domestic cattle are used for meat, milk, hides and as draft animals. Feral cattle may be hunted for meat and hides.

Uses List

General > Draught animal
General > Game animal
Materials > Skins/leather/fur
Human food and beverage > Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)
Human food and beverage > Milk
Human food and beverage > Milk and dairy products

Prevention and Control

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Management Information

 

Original text compiled by IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

  Preventative measures: Well maintained fences can give adequate protection from cattle to areas of native woody vegetation (Courchamp et al. 2003). A fence was used on Amsterdam Island in the Indian Ocean to prevent cattle damaging the breeding grounds of the 'Critically Endangered (CR)' Amsterdam albatross (see Diomedea amsterdamensis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species). Cattle were restricted to a small part of the island and eradicated from the rest (Micol and Jouventin, 1995).   Physical: Dogs and shooting are a standard method of control (SPREP, 2000).

Reproduction

Oestrous cycle

Inter-oestrous interval is 21 days; oestrus duration is 18 hours. Ovulation occurs 12 hours after oestrus ends.

Links to Websites

NameURLComment
Cattle Network - EAAPhttp://www.cattlenetwork.net/Website of the European Association for Animal Production Cattle Network. The site includes publications, summaries of cattle breeds, EU regulations, a database of companies involved at all levels of the food management chain and job postings.
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Bibliography

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Baldwin, P. H. and Fagerlund, G. O. 1943. The effect of cattle grazing on koa reproduction in Hawaii National Park. Ecology 24: 118–122.
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US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1987. Ashy Dogweed (Thymophylla tephroleuca) Recovery Plan. In: Ashy Dogweed (Thymophylla tephroleuca) Recovery Plan.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 46 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1988. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Ptilimnium nodosum. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Ptilimnium nodosum.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 5 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1990. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants Threatened Status for Apios Priceana (Price's Potato-bean). In: Federal Register, 55(4) US Fish and Wildlife Service. 429-433. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr1644.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991. Autumn buttercup (Ranunculus acriformis var. aestivalis) Recovery Plan. In: Autumn buttercup (Ranunculus acriformis var. aestivalis) Recovery Plan.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 20 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991. Stephanomeria malheurensis (Malheur Wire lettuce) Recovery Plan. In: Stephanomeria malheurensis (Malheur Wire lettuce) Recovery Plan.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 29 pp. + appendices.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1992. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants Final Rule to Determine the Plant Schoenocrambe argillacea (Clay Reed-Mustard) To Be a Threatened Species and the Plant Schoenocrambe barnebyl (Barneby Reed-Mustard) To Be an Endangered Species. In: Federal Register, 57(9) US Fish and Wildlife Service. 1398-1403. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr2006.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1993. Cochise Pincushion Cactus (Coryphantha robbinsorum) Recovery Plan. In: Cochise Pincushion Cactus (Coryphantha robbinsorum) Recovery Plan.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 49 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/930927c.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994. Aristida chaseae, Lyonia truncata var. proctorii, and Vernonia proctorii Recovery Plan. In: Aristida chaseae, Lyonia truncata var. proctorii, and Vernonia proctorii Recovery Plan.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 21 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determintation of Endangered Status for the Royal Snail and Anthony's Riversnail. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determintation of Endangered Status for the Royal Snail and Anthony's Riversnail.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 5 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994. Green Pitcher Plant Recovery Plan. In: Green Pitcher Plant Recovery Plan.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 23 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994. Recovery Plan for Lipochaeta venosa and Isodendrion hosakae. In: Recovery Plan for Lipochaeta venosa and Isodendrion hosakae.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 46 pp. + appendix.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994. Recovery Plan for Serianthes nelsonii. In: Recovery Plan for Serianthes nelsonii.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 60 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995. Lana'i Plant Cluster Recovery Plan. In: Lana'i Plant Cluster Recovery Plan.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 138 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996. Recovery Plan for the Molokai Plant Cluster. In: Recovery Plan for the Molokai Plant Cluster.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 143 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996. Stahlia monosperma (Cobana Negra) Recovery plan. In: Stahlia monosperma (Cobana Negra) Recovery plan. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 20 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/961101a.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1997. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Three Wetland Species Found in Southern Arizona and Northern Sonora, Mexico. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Three Wetland Species Found in Southern Arizona and Northern Sonora, Mexico.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 25 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Big Island II: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Big Island Plant Cluster. In: Big Island II: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Big Island Plant Cluster.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 80 pp. + appendices.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered or Threatened Status for Four Plants From Southwestern California and Baja California, Mexico. In: Federal Register, 63(197) US Fish and Wildlife Service. 54938-54946. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr3325.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. Recovery Plan for Oahu Plants. In: Recovery Plan for Oahu Plants.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 207 pp. + appendices.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule to List Astragalus desereticus (Deseret milkvetch) as Threatened. In: Federal Register, 64(202) US Fish and Wildlife Service. 56590-56596. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr3460.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999. Recovery Plan for Six Plants from the Mountains Surrounding the Los Angeles Basin. In: Recovery Plan for Six Plants from the Mountains Surrounding the Los Angeles Basin. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 77 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/990930a.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2001. Revised Recovery Plan for the Oregon Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria zerene hippolyta). In: Revised Recovery Plan for the Oregon Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria zerene hippolyta).US Fish and Wildlife Service. 121 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/010822.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2002. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Retention of Threatened Status for Argali in Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan. In: Federal Register, 67(99) US Fish and Wildlife Service. 35942-35957. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2002-05-22/pdf/02-12824.pdf#page=1
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of Lesquerella filiformis (Missouri Bladderpod) from Endangered to Threatened. In: Federal Register, 68(111) US Fish and Wildlife Service. 34569-34576. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr4111.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003. Recovery Plan for the Rough Popcornflower (Plagiobothrys hirtus). In: Recovery Plan for the Rough Popcornflower (Plagiobothrys hirtus).US Fish and Wildlife Service. 60 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2004. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, Santa Cruz Island Fox, and Santa Catalina Island Fox as Endangered. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, Santa Cruz Island Fox, and Santa Catalina Island Fox as Endangered.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 19 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2004. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for Astragalus lentiginosus var. piscinensis (Fish Slough Milk-vetch). In: Federal Register, 69(108) US Fish and Wildlife Service. 31552-31569. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/federal_register/fr4309.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2005. Federally Listed Animal Species. Delta Green Ground Beetle (Elaphrus viridis). In: Recovery Plan for Vernal Pool Ecosystems of California and Southern Oregon. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 15 pp. http://www.fws.gov/sacramento/es/Recovery-Planning/Vernal-Pool/Documents/delta_green_ground_beetle.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2005. Pecos Sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus) Recovery Plan. In: Pecos Sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus) Recovery Plan. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 47 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/050915.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006. Recovery Plan for the Kauai Cave Arthropods: The Kauai Cave Wolf Spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai Cave Amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana). In: Recovery Plan for the Kauai Cave Arthropods: The Kauai Cave Wolf Spider (Adelocosa anops) and the Kauai Cave Amphipod (Spelaeorchestia koloana).US Fish and Wildlife Service. 64 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006. Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds. In: Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 622 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Ash Meadows Gumplant (Grindelia fraxino-pratensis). Five-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Ash Meadows Gumplant (Grindelia fraxino-pratensis). Five-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 22 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1865.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Lithophragma maximum (San Clemente Island Woodland Star). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Lithophragma maximum (San Clemente Island Woodland Star). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 29 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Lotus dendroideus var. traskiae (San Clemente Island lotus). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Lotus dendroideus var. traskiae (San Clemente Island lotus). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 22 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Recovery Plan for Silene spaldingii (Spalding's Catchfly). In: Recovery Plan for Silene spaldingii (Spalding's Catchfly). US Fish and Wildlife Service. 203 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/071012.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Recovery Plan for Two Plants from Rota (Nesogenes rotensis and Osmoxylon mariannense). In: Recovery Plan for Two Plants from Rota (Nesogenes rotensis and Osmoxylon mariannense).US Fish and Wildlife Service. 86 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Recovery plan for the Carson wandering skipper (Pseudocopaeodes eunus obscurus). In: Recovery plan for the Carson wandering skipper (Pseudocopaeodes eunus obscurus).US Fish and Wildlife Service. viii + 94 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. Vernal Pool Fairy Shrimp 5-Year Review. Summary and Evaluation. In: Vernal Pool Fairy Shrimp 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 76 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1150.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea kauaiensis (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea kauaiensis (no common name).US Fish and Wildlife Service. 6 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Colusa Grass (Neostapfia colusana). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Colusa Grass (Neostapfia colusana). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 27 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1930.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Dudley Bluffs Bladderpod (Lesquerella congesta or Physaria congesta) and Dudley Bluffs Twinpod (Physaria obcordata) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Dudley Bluffs Bladderpod (Lesquerella congesta or Physaria congesta) and Dudley Bluffs Twinpod (Physaria obcordata) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 24 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1916.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Greene's tuctoria (Tuctoria greenei). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Greene's tuctoria (Tuctoria greenei). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 25 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Island phacelia (Phacelia insularis var. insularis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Island phacelia (Phacelia insularis var. insularis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 16 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Keck's Checkermallow (Sidalcea keckii). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Keck's Checkermallow (Sidalcea keckii). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 13 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Purple Amole (Chlorogalum purpureum). Five-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Purple Amole (Chlorogalum purpureum). Five-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 33 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1996.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Recovery Outline for the Jones Cycladenia (Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii). In: Recovery Outline for the Jones Cycladenia (Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii). US Fish and Wildlife Service. 11 pp. http://www.fws.gov/ecos/ajax/docs/recovery_plan/Jones%20cycladenia_123008.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Showy Indian Clover (Trifolium amoenum). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Showy Indian Clover (Trifolium amoenum). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 12 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep, Ovis canadensis californiana (= Ovis canadensis sierrae). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep, Ovis canadensis californiana (= Ovis canadensis sierrae). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 40 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Taraxacum californicum (California taraxacum). Five-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Taraxacum californicum (California taraxacum). Five-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 26 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Platanthera holochila (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Platanthera holochila (no common name).US Fish and Wildlife Service. 7 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia schattaueri (Lo`ulu). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia schattaueri (Lo`ulu).US Fish and Wildlife Service. 7 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosum (A`e). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosum (A`e).US Fish and Wildlife Service. 7 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Brodiaea filifolia (Thread-Leaved brodiaea). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Brodiaea filifolia (Thread-Leaved brodiaea). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 48 pp. http://www.fws.gov/ecos/ajax/docs/five_year_review/doc2570.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Callippe Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria callippe callippe). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Callippe Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria callippe callippe). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 29 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Centaurium nomaphilum (Spring-loving centaury). 5-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Centaurium nomaphilum (Spring-loving centaury). 5-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 32 pp. http://www.fws.gov/ecos/ajax/docs/five_year_review/doc2569.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit Bat or Fanihi (Pteropus mariannus mariannus). In: Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Mariana Fruit Bat or Fanihi (Pteropus mariannus mariannus).US Fish and Wildlife Service. 98 pp. https://www.fws.gov/pacific/ecoservices/documents/100330.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Dudleya nesiotica (Santa Cruz Island dudleya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Dudleya nesiotica (Santa Cruz Island dudleya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 23 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc2576.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Foskett speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus ssp.). 5-Year Review: summary and Evaluation. In: Foskett speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus ssp.). 5-Year Review: summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 22 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc2524.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Lupinus nipomensis (Nipomo Lupine). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Lupinus nipomensis (Nipomo Lupine). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 18 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Parvisedum leiocarpum (= Sedella leiocarpa) (Lake County Stonecrop). 5-year review: summary and evaluation. In: Parvisedum leiocarpum (= Sedella leiocarpa) (Lake County Stonecrop). 5-year review: summary and evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 19 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Remya mauiensis (Maui remya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Remya mauiensis (Maui remya). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 15 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Solano Grass (Orcuttia mucronata = Tuctoria mucronata). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Solano Grass (Orcuttia mucronata = Tuctoria mucronata). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 28 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. `O`u (Psittirostra psittacea). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: `O`u (Psittirostra psittacea). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 12 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Poa mannii (Mann's bluegrass). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Poa mannii (Mann's bluegrass).US Fish and Wildlife Service. 10 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Remya kauaiensis (no common name). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Remya kauaiensis (no common name).US Fish and Wildlife Service. 12 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. 5-year review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum hawaiiense (a'e, manele). In: 5-year review, Short Form Summary: Zanthoxylum hawaiiense (a'e, manele).US Fish and Wildlife Service. 10 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Aristida chaseae (no common name), Aristida portoricensis (pelos del diablo), Lyonia truncata var. proctorii (no common name), Vernonia proctorii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Aristida chaseae (no common name), Aristida portoricensis (pelos del diablo), Lyonia truncata var. proctorii (no common name), Vernonia proctorii (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 22 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Howell's spectacular thelypody (Thelypodium howellii ssp. spectabilis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Howell's spectacular thelypody (Thelypodium howellii ssp. spectabilis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 19 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3249.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Pogogyne nudiuscula (Otay mesa mint). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Pogogyne nudiuscula (Otay mesa mint). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 41 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Recovery Outline for the Sclerocactus brevispinus (Pariette Cactus). In: Recovery Outline for the Sclerocactus brevispinus (Pariette Cactus). US Fish and Wildlife Service. 17 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/Pariette%20Cactus_Recovery%20Outline_Apr%202010.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Recovery Outline for the Sclerocactus wetlandicus (Uinta Basin Hookless Cactus). In: Recovery Outline for the Sclerocactus wetlandicus (Uinta Basin Hookless Cactus). US Fish and Wildlife Service. 15 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/Sclerocactus%20wetlandicus%20recovery%20outline_final_Apr%202010.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 121 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Sesbania tomentosa (ohai). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Sesbania tomentosa (ohai). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 24 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Spermolepis hawaiiensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Spermolepis hawaiiensis (no common name). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 19 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii (wahane). In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii (wahane).US Fish and Wildlife Service. 9 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Dwarf-flowered heartleaf (Hexastylis naniflora). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Dwarf-flowered heartleaf (Hexastylis naniflora). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 44 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3627.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Sheepnose and Spectaclecase Mussels; Proposed Rule. In: Federal Register, 76(12) US Fish and Wildlife Service. 3392-3420. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-19/pdf/2011-469.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species on Oahu as Endangered and Designating Critical Habitat for 124 Species. In: Federal Register, 76(148) US Fish and Wildlife Service. 46362-46593. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-02/pdf/2011-17162.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Kiwikiu (Maui Parrotbill) (Pseudonestor xanthophrys). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Kiwikiu (Maui Parrotbill) (Pseudonestor xanthophrys). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 20 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Little Kern Golden Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss whitei). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Little Kern Golden Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss whitei). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 32 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3894.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. Orcuttia californica (California Orcutt grass). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Orcuttia californica (California Orcutt grass). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 44 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. Brodiaea pallida (Chinese Camp brodiaea) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Brodiaea pallida (Chinese Camp brodiaea) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 22 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4008.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. Determination of Endangered Status for Three Forks Springsnail and Threatened Status for San Bernardino Springsnail Throughout Their Ranges and Designation of Critical Habitat for Both Species; Final Rule. In: Determination of Endangered Status for Three Forks Springsnail and Threatened Status for San Bernardino Springsnail Throughout Their Ranges and Designation of Critical Habitat for Both Species; Final Rule., 77(74) US Fish and Wildlife Service. 23060-23092. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-17/pdf/2012-8811.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. Gaura neomexicana subsp. coloradensis (Colorado butterfly plant). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Gaura neomexicana subsp. coloradensis (Colorado butterfly plant). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 59 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4128.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Synthliboramphus hypoleucus. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Synthliboramphus hypoleucus. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 24 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2012/r8/B098_V01.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for 15 Species on Hawaii Island; Final Rule. In: Federal Register, 78(209) USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service. 64638-64690. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-29/pdf/2013-24103.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui; Final Rule. In: Federal Register, 78(102) US Fish and Wildlife Service. 32014-32065. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-28/pdf/2013-12105.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Paiute Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii seleniris). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Paiute Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii seleniris). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 80 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4164.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Townsendia aprica (Last Chance townsendia). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Townsendia aprica (Last Chance townsendia). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.US Fish and Wildlife Service. 72 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4267.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Chorizanthe parryi var. fernandina. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Chorizanthe parryi var. fernandina. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 15 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r8/Q0EZ_P01.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Chromolaena frustrata (Cape Sable Thoroughwort); Final Rule. In: Federal Register, 79(5) US Fish and Wildlife Service. 1552-1590. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2014-01-08/pdf/2013-31576.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Species Status for Ivesia webberi. In: Federal Register, 79(106) US Fish and Wildlife Service. 31878-31883. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2014-06-03/pdf/2014-12627.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Artemisia campestris var. wormskioldii. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Artemisia campestris var. wormskioldii. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 16 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q2XG_P01.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Astragalus anserinus. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Astragalus anserinus. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 30 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r6/Q3B5_P01.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Huperzia (= Phlegmariurus) stemmermanniae. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Huperzia (= Phlegmariurus) stemmermanniae. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 14 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/S02B_P01.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus assimulans. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus assimulans. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 33 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0GQ_I01.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus facilis. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus facilis. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 32 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0GY_I01.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus hilaris. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus hilaris. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 31 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0HT_I01.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus kuakea. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus kuakea. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 29 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0VM_I01.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus longiceps. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus longiceps. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 33 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0HC_I01.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus mana. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Hylaeus mana. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 30 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0VL_I01.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ochrosia haleakalae. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Ochrosia haleakalae. US Fish and Wildlife Service. 17 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/Q3ES_P01.pdf
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Published online: 3 July 2007

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  • Cordillera Chongón Colonche: un punto caliente de diversidad para la conservación de mamíferos en el occidente de Ecuador, Mammalia aequatorialis, 10.59763/mam.aeq.v5i.62, 5, (9-29), (2023).

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